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Stomatitis is a widespread inflammation of the oral mucosa and often the lips. It is a very painful disease that makes everyday life difficult, especially eating food, both solid and liquid. What are the causes, symptoms, and types of stomatitis? How is the treatment going?
Stomatitis( stomatitis ) is an extensive inflammatory process involving most or even the entire oral mucosa and lips. The pain associated with inflammation is very bothersome, often making it impossible to take food and even fluids normally. The changes on the oral mucosa take a variety of forms: from a slight discoloration, edema, to extensive, multiple erosions and ulcers. Stomatitis is not a homogeneous disease entity, there may be many causes of the disease.
There are many diseases under the name stomatitis. The most common inflammations of the oral cavity include:
- stomatitis associated with an infectious agent (viral, fungal, bacterial);
- stomatitis related to the use of improperly fitted dentures;
- inflammation related to contact allergy to certain foods or chemicals;
- mucositis in the course of radiotherapy and cancer chemotherapy;
- aphthous stomatitis;
- general diseases, nutritional deficiencies, smoking.
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Stomatitis: types and symptoms
- Stomatitis related to viral infection
Most often it is herpetic stomatitis associated with virus infectionHerpes simplex . It mainly occurs in children up to 6 years of age. Infection occurs through contact with the saliva of a sick person. The virus develops in the body for about 5 days, after which eruptions appear on the mucosa. After the primary infection is over, the virus stops in the ganglia of the trigeminal nerve, and then occasionally presents itself as recurrent herpes. Primary stomatitis herpetic lesions take the form of vesiclesdeveloping on inflamed mucosa. Under conditions of the oral cavity, the bubbles rupture quickly, creating very painful erosions. Local symptoms are preceded by the occurrence of general symptoms such as increased temperature, enlarged local lymph nodes, muscle pain or malaise. The erosions are covered with a gray, fibrinous bloom. The lesions begin to heal after about 8-10 days without leaving any traces.
- Prosthetic stomatitis ( stomatitis prothetica )
Prosthetic stomatitis ( stomatitis prothetica ), also known as chronic atrophic candidiasis, is associated with the use of incorrectly fitted or poorly made dentures. Defective prosthetic restorations traumatize the oral mucosa, causing inflammation. TheCandidafungi took a liking to the development of the space between the denture plate and the mucosa. The damaged mucosa is no longer a protective barrier for the development of fungi that quickly infect it, leading to the formation of eruptions. Due to the vastness of the changes, the following division of prosthetic stomatopathy has been introduced (division according to Newton):
- Grade I- focal point reddening of the mucosa;
- grade II - the entire mucosa of the prosthesis plate is reddened, it may be slightly swollen;
- Grade III- proliferative changes in the mucosa, i.e. papillary hyperplasia.
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- Post-antibiotic stomatitis
Another type of stomatitis associated with the occurrence of fungi is the so-called post-antibiotic stomatitis, otherwise known as acute atrophic candidiasis. It may develop in people who take antibiotics for a long time or use topical steroids. Chronic antibiotic therapy causes an imbalance in the natural ecosystem of oral microorganisms. The bacterial cells fought by the antibiotic give way to fungi which can develop freely. The lesions take the form of red, diffuse spots covered with thin epithelium. Mucosal eruptions are often accompanied by a sharp, burning pain.
- Allergic stomatitis
Allergic stomatitis, may be associated with a type I allergic reaction or a contact allergy (type IV hypersensitivity) to foods or components of the prosthetic supplement used by the patient. Contact allergy is associated withthe immune response of a cell-type organism. Local erythematous changes, slight edema, erosions or even ulcerations can be observed clinically. Patients coming to the office report subjective feelings such as pain, itching, and burning. There are complaints of local paraesthesia or tingling of the oral mucosa.
- Stomatitis in the course of radio- and chemotherapy
Stomatitis in the course of radio- and chemotherapy is inflammation of the oral mucosa caused by the action of anticancer drugs or the influence of ionizing rays (radiotherapy) in the area of the head and neck. The therapy used in the treatment of cancer is aimed at, inter alia, inhibition of cell division. Drugs used for this purpose do not selectively act only on neoplastic cells. The rapidly dividing he althy cells of the body also cause damage. These include, among others, basal layer cells (this is the epithelial layer responsible for the production of new cells, and thus - for the regeneration of the epithelium). As a result of its damage, extensive ulcerations and erosions of the mucosa are formed, which are characterized by great pain. The changes may be accompanied by redness and swelling of the mucosa.
- Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS)
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) belongs to the group of unexplained lesions. It is presumed to be associated with disorders in the immune system, thinning of the mucosa, and food allergies. It is characterized by ulcerations and erosions on the oral mucosa. Ulcers are shallow, covered with a white or gray coating, surrounded by a reddened mucosa. Eruptions are very painful. As the name of the disease indicates, it is recurrent. Due to the size of the lesions and the place of their occurrence, there are three types of eruptions: small, large, and herpes-like.
Due to various causes of stomatitis, the procedure should be individually selected for the patient. In the event of disturbing symptoms, it is necessary to visit a doctor who will lead the treatment appropriately.
It is very important to combat the causative agent of the disease. If necessary, antifungal or antiviral treatments may be instituted. A proper diet is also recommended. Compensating for nutritional deficiencies improves the condition of the entire body, including the mucosa. Additionally, avoiding allergy-causing foodscontact will minimize its symptoms.
In some cases, the cause of the disease remains elusive or cannot be eliminated. In such situations, symptomatic treatment is used to reduce the patient's discomfort associated with the pain and other symptoms. When diagnosed with stomatitis, it is important to maintain good oral hygiene. It is recommended to brush the teeth gently with a soft brush, it is advisable to use antibacterial rinses (containing chlorhexidine).Probe