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Antiphospholipid syndrome (Hughes syndrome) is a systemic disorder of the connective tissue. It is associated with an abnormal response of the immune system and the production of antibodies against the structures of its own tissues. It then leads to thrombotic states or spontaneous miscarriages. What are the causes and symptoms of the antiphospholipid syndrome? Treatment of Hughes syndrome.

Antiphospholipid syndrome (Hughes syndrome)in women makes it difficult to report pregnancy - it may causemiscarriage . The frequency of losing a child in untreated patients is as much as 80%. The antiphospholipid syndrome attacks women twice as often.

Antiphospholipid syndrome - symptoms

TypicalSymptoms for Antiphospholipid Syndromeis:

  • thrombosis (mainly venous, especially in deep veins of the lower extremities),
  • neurological abnormalities - symptoms of a stroke or transient ischemic attacks. From sensory organs, thrombosis may affect the eye and is manifested by transient visual disturbances,
  • obstetric failures - preeclampsia, placental insufficiency, fetal growth restriction,
  • joint pain,
  • changes on the skin - reticular cyanosis, leg ulcers and necrotic changes in the area of ​​the fingers.

Antiphospholipid syndrome - diagnosis

Clinical criteria include episodes of vascular thrombosis, obstetric failures, and laboratory criteria include serum levels of substances such as lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies, and antibodies to beta-2-microglobulin. The disease is diagnosed when at least one clinical and laboratory criterion is met.

Antiphospholipid syndrome - treatment

Anticoagulation is administered when symptoms of venous or arterial thrombosis appear. However, there is no consensus on the treatment of pregnant women. Rapidly developing antiphospholipid syndrome requires plasmapheresis and megadoses of cyclophosphamide, as well as intravenous administration of immunoglobulins and heparin.


A very rare clinical situation is the so-calledcatastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome , during which several organs fail at the same time, most often kidneys, lungs andhearts. This condition is caused by the development of thrombosis in the small vessels. Symptoms come on suddenly.

There is fever, dyspnoea, edema, and unconsciousness of the patient. There is a development of respiratory, circulatory and renal failure. There is then a high risk of death.

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