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Staphylococcus is an aerobic bacterium that is pathogenic for humans. Staphylococci are spherical in shape. They cause various infections. Depending on the development of the disease, a different treatment is used.

Staphylococciare aerobic spherical bacteria pathogenic for humans. Their division is based on the ability to produce coagulase. It is a protein enzyme produced by certain microorganisms. It allows the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin. There are different types ofstaphylococcithat can cause different diseases. What are thesymptoms of staphylococcus ?

Staphylococcus - types

The most common species of staphylococci are coagulase-positive staphylococcus aureus ( Staphylococcus aureus ), which is most important in human diseases. It constitutes the physiological flora of the skin and mucous membranes.

The coagulase-negative staphylococci include:

  • koagulazouujemy staphylococcus ( Staphylococcus epidermidis ),
  • staphylococcus haemolyticus ,
  • koagulazouujemy staphylococcus ( Staphylococcus lugdunensis ),
  • staphylococcus saprophyticus .

Staphylococcus causes many diseases, including: digestive system, lung, bone, heart and joint diseases, and cutaneous staphylococcus causes skin diseases.

Skin diseases caused by staphylococci

Inflammation of the hair follicle

Folliculitis is an inflammation of a follicle that is filled with purulent contents, often pierced by hair. The lesions may occur in various locations: on the face, torso or limbs. Therapy is usually based on the topical application of aerosols containing antibiotics.

Antibiotic therapy is offered only in the case of extensive lesions.

Figówka

Fig is a chronic purulent inflammation of the hair follicles. It is a type of folliculitis characterized by an extremely chronic course. Changes in the form of pustules, papules or even softening purulent bumps usually occur in the hairy skin of the face or head.

Treatment usually requires a long period of antibiotic treatment.

Boil

In the case of boils, inflammation also affects the area around the hair follicle. Initially, it appears as a lump, which laterturns into a pustule, pierced by hair. Under the pimple, necrosis and tissue breakdown occur.

When a necrotic plug is removed, a cavity is usually formed, which later leaves a scar. The location of boils varies, but it is worth paying attention to those that appear around the temple, eye socket or upper lip, as they may cause complications in the form of transmission of the infection to the cavernous sinuses and meninges of the brain.

Treatment uses an ichthyol compress and removal of the necrotic plug through incision of the lesion. In some cases, antibiotic therapy is also used.

Children's skin diseases caused by staphylococci

Neonatal blistering and exfoliative skin inflammation

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) in newborns. It is caused by Staphylococcus aureus, which produces exfoliative toxins that destroy the epidermis.

This disease manifests itself as severe dermatitis with blisters and epidermal drainage. It most often occurs in children in the first three months of life, much less frequently in adults. Being ill will not leave any scars. Fatal deaths are the result of a secondary bacterial infection of the exposed skin.

Treatment consists of administering antibiotics and parenteral fluids.

Neonatal bladder impetigo

It is a localized form of bullous and exfoliative skin inflammation in newborns. It is manifested by blisters with serous and purulent contents in the first weeks of life.

Food poisoning caused by Staphylococcus

It is one of the most common food poisonings. It develops as a result of eating food containing staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin. The most contaminated foods are ice cream, hams, s alted pork and potato salads. The important thing about this infection is that heating the food does not prevent poisoning, because it depends on the presence of a heat-stable toxin, resistant to high temperatures, and not on the presence of the bacteria themselves.

Symptoms of food poisoning caused bystaphylococcusare:

  • vomiting,
  • watery diarrhea,
  • abdominal pain, which usually disappears after 24 hours.

Treatment is based on relieving symptoms by administering drugs that relieve pain or inhibit diarrhea. In cases of acute poisoning withstaphylococcus , where the patient is significantly dehydrated, drips are administered. Antibiotic therapy is not recommended.

Staphylococcal enteritis

It is caused by some strains of Streptococcus aureus. It usually occurs in patients who have undergone antibiotic therapy with broad-spectrum agents, and therefore the protective physiological flora has been destroyed. This state allowsstaphylococcusto overgrow. Symptoms of staphylococcal infectioninclude watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever.

Staphylococcus and toxic shock syndrome

This disease is caused by the entry into the blood of TSST-1staphylococcusgolden toxin, as a result of the growth of this bacterium in a wound or vagina. It is manifested by increased temperature, lowered blood pressure, redness, the skin throughout the body is peeling and there is intravascular coagulation (fulminant purpura).

The treatment uses antibiotic therapy, which has significantly lowered the mortality rate of this disease.

Staphylococcus and bacteremia and endocarditis

Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of bacteremia. In many cases, infection occurs as a result of hospitalization and operations. Endocarditis is a secondary infection caused by bacteraemia. At the beginning of the disease development, the symptoms may be non-specific and flu-like.

After some time, fever, chills and chest pain caused by pulmonary embolism appear. It is also worth mentioning that Staphylococcus epidermidis is also associated with endocarditis. In this case, infection usually occurs as a result of sewing artificial valves into the heart muscle. The disease process is accompanied by the formation of an abscess.

Treatment of endocarditis requires prompt surgical intervention.

Staphylococcal pneumonia and pleural empyema

Staphylococcusgolden can enter the respiratory system through droplets or through the bloodstream from another site of infection, eg as a result of bacteremia or endocarditis. A pleural empyema occurs in some patients with pneumonia.

Treatment is based on antibiotic therapy and drainage in the case of an empyema.

Staphylococcus and osteomyelitis

The symptoms of osteitis are severe local bone pain and a high fever. In adults, the pain is often located in the spine. Brodie's abscesses appear 2-3 weeks after the onset of symptoms on the epiphyses of the bones.

Osteitis can occur as a result of a secondary infection or the entry of bacteria into the bones, for example as a result of surgery or trauma. Treatment is based on surgical interventionand antibiotic therapy.

Staphylococcus and septic arthritis

This disease is manifested by joint pain and redness. Most often it affects large joints, such as the elbow, knee, hip or shoulder joints. It occurs in people who receive intravenous injections or in patients with joint degeneration.

Staphylococcus and infections of catheters and implants

The most common pathogen responsible for this type of infection is Staphylococcus epidermidis. Due to the ability to create a biofilm, i.e. a structure that protects against antibiotics and cells of the immune system, this bacterium is a major medical problem. Glomerulonephritis is a common complication of long-lastingstaphylococcalinfection.

Staphylococcus and arthroplasty infections

Sick people feel local pain, there is also a mechanical destruction of the joint. Systemic symptoms are absent. Treatment is based on joint replacement combined with antibiotic therapy.

Staphylococcus and urinary tract infections

Staphylococcus saphrophyticus is most often responsible for urinary tract infections. They usually occur in young, sexually active women. Symptoms of the infection are pain while urinating and the presence of pus in the urine. Therapy is antibiotic therapy, and reinfection is rare.

Important

Staphylococcus - what tests should be performed?

Infectionsstaphylococcalare diagnosed by testing blood, urine, or a tissue sample from an infected area to check for the presence of bacteria. If staphylococcal bacteria are found, further tests are carried out to see which antibiotic will work.

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