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Diabetes mellitus type 1 is insulin-dependent (adolescent) diabetes, which usually occurs in children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19. What are the causes and symptoms of insulin-dependent diabetes? How is type 1 diabetes treated?

Type 1 diabetes mellitus( insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus ) was formerly called juvenile diabetes due to the fact that it manifests itself in adolescence - 10 percent of patients first develop symptoms before the age of 14, another 10 percent between the ages of 14 and 18, and the remaining 80 percent develop symptoms before the age of 30. This type of diabetes requires the constant administration of exogenous insulin.

Type 1 diabetes: causes

The cause of type 1 diabetes is damage to the beta cells (islets of Langerhans) of the pancreas, which occurs most often as a result of viral infection. These cells are responsible for the production of insulin. The tendency to develop diabetes is hereditary.

Diabetes mellitus type 1: symptoms

  • frequent urination (also at night)
  • intense, unsatisfied thirst (drinking up to 6 liters of fluid a day)
  • weight loss despite high appetite
  • weakness
  • sleepiness
  • decrease in psychophysical activity (in children manifested by a lack of willingness to play or learn)
  • irritation, even outbreaks of aggression
  • dry and rough skin, tears in the corners of the mouth (due to dehydration)
  • swelling and redness of the throat, and a coating on the tonsils - often mistaken for angina
  • nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain
  • unpleasant (acetone-like) smell from the mouth
  • coma (if pancreatic beta-cell reserves are depleted rapidly, collapse may occur)

These symptoms, along with blood sugar levels measured at any time of the day above 200 mg%, are sufficient to make a diagnosis.

Diabetes mellitus type 1: treatment

Diabetes mellitus type 1 requires constant monitoring of blood sugar levels and administration of insulin several times a day before meals. The goal of treatment is to restore the rhythm of insulin secretion by a he althy body. If left untreated, type 1 diabetes will lead to death.

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