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Lymphopenia (lymphocytopenia) is a failure of the system that produces lymphocytes. Lymphopenia may be congenital or acquired, and its effect is a decrease in the number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, and thus - a decrease in the body's immunity. What are the types and causes of lymphopenia? How is lymphopenia treated?

Lymphopeniatemporary, relative may appear when we fight bacterial infection.The decrease in the number of lymphocytesis then an effect of the mobilization of the organism, and doctors consider it a beneficial phenomenon.Absolute Lymphopeniais a chronic low lymphocyte count. It testifies to the malfunctioning of the body's immune system.

Lymphopenia: symptoms

People affected by lymphopenia are therefore prone to infections and infections. They suffer from frequent and recurring strep throat and flu, catch colds easily, have a tendency to mouth ulcers or boils on the skin.

Lymphopenia: causes

Lymphopenia may be a congenital disease, but most often it is caused by infections, cancer, hematological and endocrine diseases, immune deficiency syndromes, vascular collagenosis and many other diseases. Lymphopenia can also be caused by taking certain medications, as well as, for example, strong and prolonged stress or excessive prolonged physical exertion. Low blood lymphocytes are a common but temporary symptom after chemotherapy.

Lymphopenia: diagnosis

Lymphopenia can only be diagnosed by a doctor on the basis of detailed immunological and serological tests. However, it is important to have a precise interview regarding the type and frequency of disturbing ailments and symptoms of immunodeficiency. During a blood test, the percentage of lymphocytes in relation to other blood components is examined. The norm depends on the age. It is assumed that in an adult human condition is normal when lymphocytes constitute about 20-40 percent. blood. The absolute number of lymphocytes in a given unit of blood volume is also tested. If an adult has less than 1,500 cells per microliter and a child has less than 3,000 cells per microliter, it may be considered lymphopenic.

Types of lymphopenia

Doctors diagnose lymphopenia in general,if the blood is partially missing all types of lymphocytes, or - after very detailed analyzes - they distinguish several forms of the disease, if only a certain type is missing in the blood:

  • T lymphopenia (deficiency of T cells that produce antibodies) - a common cause in this case is HIV infection;
  • type B lymphopenia (deficiency of type B lymphocytes) - most often occurs due to taking medications that weaken the immune system,
  • NK lymphopenia (deficiency of NK (natural killer) lymphocytes, which destroy microorganisms and cancer cells) - a very rare disease.

Treatment of lymphopeniais the treatment of a disease that has caused the lymphocyte levels in the blood to drop, and therefore to a weakened immune system. Once the disease has resolved, lymphocyte levels generally return to normal.

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