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Ethanol, or ethyl alcohol, is an organic chemical compound belonging to the group of alcohols. It's a monohydric, primary, saturated alcohol. Ethanol is considered to be one of the most frequently chosen intoxicants. Find out what the types of ethyl alcohol are and check how it affects the human body. What are the properties of ethanol and where is it used?
Ethanolis obtained in the process of alcoholic fermentation of products containing sugar. The basic raw materials for its production are sugar beets, potatoes and sugar cane. It is also obtained by fermenting wheat or corn. The alcohol produced is separated by distillation. The next stage of its purification is rectification, which produces rectified spirit, which is a mixture of alcohol and water.The maximum concentration of ethyl alcohol that can be obtained in the rectification process is 96.5 percent.
Ethanol is a colorless liquid with a specific, pungent odor. It is flammable - it burns light blue flame of moderate intensity in the air.
With unlimited access of oxygen, the reaction of complete combustion of ethanol takes place. The products of complete combustion are carbon monoxide (IV) and water. Ethyl alcohol is miscible with water in any ratio, therefore it is used as an organic solvent.
Spirit, or about 95 percent a mixture of ethanol and wateris the highest concentration product available in stores.Anhydrous spirit , also known as absolute spirit, whoseconcentration is 100 percent.can only be obtained by azeotropic distillation process.
This is one type of azeotropic distillation using a separating agent that changes the relative volatility of the original components of the separated mixture.
100% alcohol has hygroscopic properties (it is able to absorb moisture), therefore it should be stored in a tightly closed vessel.
Types of ethanol
The most famous type of ethanol is rectified, calledspirit . Its power is around96.5 percent . It is used in the production of a wide variety of alcoholic beverages and spirits as wellas a component of cake flavorings.
Spirit and anhydrous ethanol with a power of up to 99.9 percent . has been used in the pharmaceutical industry, where it is used as a solvent in the maceration of medicinal substances from herbs.
It can also be found in preparations used in the treatment of food poisoning and as a preservative in syrups.
Ethanol has also found application in the cosmetics industry, it is used for the production of perfumes and aromatic waters.
Moreover, it is a component of window cleaners and other household products. It is a popular disinfectant and disinfectant.
This type of ethanol is dangerous to humans andis not suitable for consumption . It is used in the production of fuel, adhesives and paints.
On its basis, many chemical solvents for various purposes are produced. It is widely used in the printing industry.
Ethanol is a product with a wide range of uses. In the food industry, it is used for the production of vodka, alcoholic beverages, and confectionery flavors. It is worth remembering that its supply in too large amounts is dangerous and can lead to alcoholism.
Due to its bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties it has been used in medicine. In addition, it has bactericidal and antifungal properties. It can be found in syrups, cough and cold remedies.
It is a component of analgesic gels and lotions used in the fight against acne. Ethanol is part of perfumes and shaving cosmetics. It plays an important role in the treatment of dermatological problems.
Ethyl alcohol has been used in many industries. It is used in the production of building materials, solvents and paints. It is used as a fuel for biofireplaces.
Dehydrated ethanol is used as a biocomponent in the production of petroleum-derived liquid fuels. It is used for the production of windscreen washers or air fresheners.
Effect of ethanol on the human body
Ethanol is a psychoactive substance from the depressant category. It is considered one of the most frequently chosen intoxicants. Depending on the dose, it has a different effect on the human body.Consumption of 150-250g of ethanol may be fatal .
Ethanol disrupts communication pathways in the brain, affects mood and behavior. Drinking two glasses of vodka relaxes you, improves your self-confidence and makes your heart beat faster. After alcohol, problems withconcentration and body coordination.
Large doses of ethanol can lead to :
- problems with concentration,
- speech disorders,
- visual impairment,
- and sometimes even to the loss of consciousness.
Alcohol is absorbed into the digestive tract and reaches the bloodstream approximately 10 minutes after consumption. About 50% of the body is absorbed after 15 minutes. the alcohol you consume. The organ responsible for its metabolism is the liver.
Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to :
- liver fibrosis,
- and even cirrhosis of the liver.
Alcohol causes the pancreas to produce a toxic substance that can swell the blood vessels.
Ethanol may increase blood pressure, lead to cardiac arrhythmias and heart disease.
- Alcohol-related diseases
- He alth effects of alcohol abuse - reversible and irreversible changes in the body