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Sinusitis is an inflammatory process of the mucosa of the paranasal sinuses. The paranasal sinuses can bother anyone at any time of the year, but the most common sinus season is in the fall. Find out about sinusitis symptoms and treatments.
Inflammation of the paranasal sinusesis caused by a disturbance in their drainage and ventilation as a result of an infection, allergy or specific anatomy.Paranasal sinusitis is one of the ten most common medical diagnoses. Get to knowsymptoms of sinusitis , because it is a condition that often escapes the patient's consciousness, as it is masked by troublesome symptoms of a cold or other infection.
What are the paranasal sinuses?
The sinuses themselves are air-filled spaces in the bony structure of the skull symmetrically located around the nose and eyes (frontal and maxillary sinuses, ethmoid cells, and sphenoid sinuses). In a way, they are an extension of the nasal cavities - they come into contact with the nasal cavity through the sinus opening. They are lined with a mucosa. The mucosa of the paranasal sinuses has a self-cleaning mucociliary mechanism and produces large amounts of mucus secretion that moisturizes the epithelium and collects impurities. The rowing, swinging movement of the cilia on the surface of the mucosa causes the discharge of sinus secretions through the narrow slit-like openings in the nasal cavities to the outside.
Viruses and bacteria - causes of sinusitis
The most common causes of sinusitis are viruses that usually cause a mild course of the disease. However, it may lead to bacterial superinfection. Staphylococci, influenza, moraxella and streptococci predominate in infections of bacterial origin in sinusitis. Symptoms of inflammation: any viral infection causes inflammation and swelling of the nasal mucosa and paranasal sinuses. What is sinusitis like? The swelling of the mucosa gradually closes the sinus connections with the nasal cavity. This creates a negative pressure in the sinuses due to the rapid flow of air through the nasal cavity. Negative pressure in the sinuses promotes the penetration of viruses and bacteria present in the nasal mucosa. The non-excreted, accumulating secretion becomes a breeding ground for bacteria. Temperature andair humidity in sinus cavities favor the multiplication of microorganisms. The intensive multiplication of pathogenic bacteria causes the development of inflammation, fever and damage to the epithelium of the sinus mucosa.
Treatment of paranasal sinusitis
Acute sinusitis is usually severe and the sinuses are treated with antibiotics for 10-14 days. If there is no bacterial infection, then the course of acute sinusitis is mild. In addition, symptomatic treatment is also used. Surgical treatment methods are used when pharmacological treatment of chronic sinusitis is ineffective. Surgical treatment of sinusitis is aimed at restoring nasal patency, drainage and obtaining adequate ventilation of the sinuses (removal of diseased tissues, creating a patent sinus connection with the nasal cavity or nasal septum plasty). Twosinus treatment methods : FESS and the balloon method deserve special attention.
Sinusitis: surgical treatment
We present two surgical methods of treating sinusitis. FESS, i.e. endoscopic sinus surgery, enables very precise operation of the tools, thanks to the possibility of constant observation of the treatment field on the monitor. The operation is performed inside the nose without cutting the skin of the face. Performing the procedure under the control of an endoscope allows for the precise localization of the cause of the ailments and, consequently, limitation of the interference with the diseased tissues. Using the FESS surgical technique in the treatment of sinusitis, first of all, correct ventilation of the paranasal sinuses is restored. Sinus ballooning is the newest endoscopic surgery method. This is called endoscopic sinus catheterization - a bloodless procedure, characterized by a low degree of invasiveness thanks to the use of miniaturized, soft and very flexible devices that are inserted through the nostrils. With their help, the blocked sinuses are gently opened.