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Degeneration of the hip joint first causes constant pain, limits the efficiency, and eventually leads to disability. Today, an endoprosthesis, i.e. an artificial hip joint, allows you to quickly regain full freedom of movement. How does the implantation of an artificial hip joint work?

Coxarthrosis, ordegeneration of the hip joint , is the gradual and irreversible destruction of articular cartilage and other tissues that make up the joint. Sick cartilage loses its shock-absorbing and friction-reducing properties for the bones that make up the joint. Bone spurs (osteophytes) are formed on the surface of the bones, which limit movement and accelerate the destruction of the joint. Changes in the hip joint can be primary and secondary.

Causes of hip joint degeneration

The cause of primary degeneration of the hip joint is unknown. Specialists suspect that they arise when the metabolism of the articular cartilage is disturbed or there is a change in the composition of the synovial fluid. In both cases, the cartilage is malnourished. Construction defects are among the secondary causes. An improperly built joint has a too shallow socket, i.e. a depression in the pelvis. When the joint is moved, part of the femoral head slips beyond the acetabulum, and this leads to damage to the hip joint. The development of the disease is favored by high cholesterol and triglycerides, diabetes, overweight, and micro-injuries resulting from overloading, e.g. while lifting.

Degeneration of the hip joint: symptoms

The first symptom of hip degeneration is pain in the groin and hip that occurs when standing up and walking. Often the pain radiates to the knee. When hip degeneration develops, pain also occurs while lying down. The joint becomes less and less mobile, and the sick person begins to limp, wanting to avoid pain. As the disease continues, the movement of the joint becomes more and more restricted. Already at the first ailments, you need to start relieving the joint - lose weight, walk with a cane held in your hand on the "he althy side", use physical therapy treatments and systematically exercise to improve the joint and strengthen the muscles around it. In periods of increased pain, you can take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and even better only painkillers. Byin a significantly advanced degeneration of the hip joint, endoprosthesis is the only effective way to restore it.


What is an endoprosthesis?

An endoprosthesis is an artificial joint that consists of a socket (hollow hemisphere) and a ball ending in a pin. There are many types of hip replacement. They can be divided into complete and partial. If a total endoprosthesis is placed, both the acetabulum and the femoral head must be replaced with artificial elements. With a partial endoprosthesis, only the femoral head is removed and a prosthesis is placed in its place. The natural cup remains intact. Over the years, the method of attaching artificial ponds has changed. Initially, the so-called bone cement, but it turned out to be harmful. It was replaced by acrylic cement, which also had many disadvantages. Currently, uncemented dentures are the most commonly used. The outer surface of the prosthesis - the acetabulum and the stem - is covered with hydroxyapatite (a natural mineral component of bone). It becomes rough, has a large surface area, and over time, bone grows into its pores. This gives the prosthesis stability. But what type of endoprosthesis will be used depends on the type of joint changes, the quality of bone tissue (e.g. in case of osteoporosis, uncemented dentures are unlikely to be put on) and the patient's age

Sparing method of saving the hip joint

Capoplasty is a sparing procedure - it allows you to keep the natural head and neck of the femur, which guarantees anatomical arrangement of the bones, minimizes the risk of dislocation and ensures a quick return to an active life. During the procedure, the acetabulum in the pelvis is replaced, and a cape, i.e. a cover resembling a cap, is placed on the head of the femur.

Both methods of hip replacement surgery are reimbursed under the he alth fund.

The method can be used when the bones are not decalcified and the joint is not damaged too much by degenerative changes. The advantage of this solution is that the patient recovers faster and recovers more quickly. In addition, there is no risk of changing the length of the legs, loosening the endoprosthesis or losing balance due to body instability. Putting a cover on the pond is not the final solution. In the event of a deterioration of he alth or after an injury, a traditional hip replacement may be used.

Rehabilitation after hip replacement surgery

After the endoprosthesis implantation, you must first of all use common sense and not allow excessive stress on the joint. This does not mean, however, that we only have to sit in the armchair.

In the first weeks afterDuring surgery, it is inadvisable to lie on the operated side, put the diseased leg on the he althy leg, sit on low chairs, lift weights and sit in the bathtub. If the toilet seat is not high enough, you can attach handles to make it easier to get up, and even better, buy a tall cover instead of the toilet seat. Likewise with the bed. The sleeping surface should be high enough so that your feet are touching the floor when you sit on the edge of the bed.

During postoperative rehabilitation, all bends and twists of the body should be performed carefully. At home, you must wear soft and full slippers that keep well on the foot. Shoes should have a low, wide and stable heel.

You also need regular exercise, walking and swimming. You need to move your legs calmly while swimming. You can ride a bike, cross-country skiing, and slide down gentle slopes. It all depends on your overall fitness. Modern endoprostheses impose little restrictions on patients. Postoperative complications occur in a few cases.

Is this really hip degeneration?

In order to diagnose osteoarthritis, a rheumatologist often only needs to interview the patient and check the mobility of the joints. To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor orders a bone X-ray. In the photos, he can see, among others narrowing of the joint space, i.e. the space where the cartilages of the bones that make up the joint meet, and - if they are - bone spurs, i.e. osteophytes. Sometimes blood and urine tests are performed to rule out other joint diseases, such as gout.

I live without limits after hip joint replacement

Dr. Grzegorz Prasałek underwent hip replacement surgery 3 years ago. He knows the subject perfectly both as a doctor and as a patient:

- Some time ago I had aseptic necrosis of the head of the right femur. It's a kind of bone "infarction", similar to a heart attack. The pains in the right groin were minor at first and only appeared after prolonged walking. Later, they intensified along with the reconstruction and "mushroom-like" deformation of the femoral head. Relieving the joint, that is walking with a cane, helped a little. When the pain started to wake me up at night with each change of body position, I was ready to insert a prosthesis. I was qualified for a cementless total denture implantation. The treatment was successful. After 3 days, I stood at the balcony, and after 3 months of rehabilitation, I returned to work in the hospital. I have coded restrictions related to an artificial hip, e.g. I do not put a leg with a prosthesis on a he althy one. The new hip is doing so well that I forget about it, which is sometimes the reasonfun events. Recently, I appeared in court as a witness. As I was walking through the security gate, an alarm sounded. This situation happened 3 times. The guards were surprised. Finally, I remembered that I had a titanium steel and porcelain hip. I live normally, I am active. The hip, although artificial, is like my own. This is the best advertisement for this joint treatment method. I encourage everyone who has problems with their hip joints to undergo surgery. It is not worth suffering and giving up your life.

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