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It doesn't matter if you are a beginner runner, or if you take part in all major marathons - injuries and serious injuries can happen to anyone. See what mistakes runners make most often and how to train so as not to overload your body.

The most common mistakes of runnersare discussed by Dr. Jacek Jaroszewski, MD, a doctor of the Polish National Football Team, orthopedist at the Centrum Hospital.

Here are the 7 most common mistakes runners make:

1. Runners' mistakes: non-compliance with the rules of nutrition and diet

Proper diet of an athlete is a very important factor influencing his condition. It should be balanced to allow for intense effort. The most important source of energy for long-term muscle work are carbohydrates. Muscle glycogen is the basic resource of glucose necessary for their work. Depleting its reserves results in decreased performance and fatigue. So make sure that your menu does not run out of rice, groats, pasta, bread, fruit or potatoes.

Carbohydrates should account for approx. 60 percent. consumed products. It is important to eat them regularly and in moderate portions - thanks to this, insulin (responsible for glycogenesis) is produced gradually, not abruptly, and glycogen is systematically introduced into the muscles and liver.

Also remember to eat a meal approx. 2 hours before the planned physical exercise - slowly, chewing the bites thoroughly. Badly chewed, it is more difficult to digest and can cause stomach discomfort. Running with a full stomach is unhe althy, but too long a break is not recommended - the body then begins to use energy from muscles instead of glycogen during exercise. Systematic, regular hydration of the body throughout the day is also extremely important. During and after training, we can reach for isotonic drinks.

2. Runners' mistakes: no proper outfit

Appropriate footwear is the basis - it not only provides comfort, but above all reduces the risk of injury. However, this does not mean that we should choose the latest and most expensive model.

Footwear should be matched to the construction of our foot (e.g. the type of instep) and the ground on which we usually run (hard asph alt or soft, sandy forest path). We choose thenfootwear without or with an appropriate foot stabilizer, stiff and controlling the foot movement or with a flexible sole, effectively absorbing shocks. A seller in a professional sports shop will help us choose the right shoes.

Read: How to choose your running shoes?

The outfit is also important - it should not hurt, restrict movement or rub. In the case of women, especially ladies with larger breasts, a stabilizing sports bra is very important, as it will take care of the he alth of the breasts. Clothing should be made of breathable material that wicks sweat away from the body - this will increase comfort, but also protect against cooling down or overheating of the body, as well as against a cold (unlike a wet cotton T-shirt).

Check: Running outfit - how to choose running clothes at a low cost?

3. Runner mistakes: inadequate preparation before training

Deep feeling, i.e. proprioception, is the most responsible for protecting our body from injury. It is a type of unconscious feeling that conducts impulses many times faster than conscious feeling. The injury we are aware of has usually occurred long ago.

Developed at an appropriate level, deep feeling, responsible for the unconscious control of joint stability as well as control and coordination of movements, affects the correction of our body, which will avoid injury.

We can train them by doing some very simple exercises, such as standing on one leg with eyes closed, and then trying to climb on toes in this position or doing squats. In addition, regular stretching, i.e. stretching the muscles, is a very important prevention of injuries. Regular gymnastics is enough - everyday strokes and bends, circling your shoulders and hips.

Be sure to read: Dynamic stretching - stretching exercises before training

It is especially important just before starting any activity - proper warm-up reduces the risk of microtraumas. They arise as a result of overuse, i.e. repeated overloads, and their accumulation leads to inflammation. Stretching after exercise is equally important - the longer it takes, the better.

Check: Cool down - calming down and relaxing muscles after training

4. Runners' mistakes: ignoring the pain

With most injuries, it's good to go to a specialist. Even a seemingly minor injury, if not treated properly, may result in a permanent functional deficit. The basic symptoms which should arouse anxiety, and when they arise, stop further symptomsexercise include:

• pain that occurs with movement and intensifies after exercise,

• pain on palpation, i.e. palpation of a given area,

• restriction of mobility and weakening of muscle strength,

• swelling.

A neglected injury can have different consequences depending on what was damaged. If a muscle is torn and not treated quickly enough, a scar will form at the site of the tear. It will be much less flexible than the muscle, so the risk of further injuries increases, always in the same place. In the case of damage to the meniscus or cartilage in the knee joint, the lack of prompt medical treatment will cause irreversible changes, e.g. abrasions and extensive damage to articular cartilage. The same is true of ligaments - chronic instability resulting from the lack of treatment leads to a condition that, after some time, cannot be healed.

Read: Runner's Knee: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment. Injury prevention exercises

5. Runners' mistakes: monothematic training

Running for a long time requires an adequate level of aerobic fitness. VO2 is the body's ability to absorb oxygen: transport it from the lungs to the cells of the muscle tissue, and to use the oxygen supplied by the blood. Endurance is a measure of the effectiveness of training, it shows how much we can endure during exercise: the higher it is, the slower we get tired and our body regenerates faster. We increase it by strengthening the heart, lungs, but also muscles and taking care of the proper composition of the body. Muscle strength is also important for another reason - greater muscle strength reduces the risk of injuries in those that are used intensively during demanding exercise.

In addition, core training is important in long runs - its stability helps maintain a good pace at the end of the distance. Moreover, good posture reduces the risk of injury. Therefore, it is important to take up other physical activity in addition to running - stabilization, strengthening or strength training, e.g. cycling, swimming. As a consequence, they translate into the overall efficiency of the organism.

Check: Running: 10-week training plan for beginners

6. Runners' mistakes: lack of systematicity

Regular training is the key to success. If your goal is to run a marathon - systematic exercise is essential to prepare the body for long-term effort. Doing sports, min. 30 minutes 4 times a week allows you to maintain a deep feeling at the appropriate level, which minimizes the risk of injury. It also affectsincreasing efficiency and strengthening muscles.

Increase training intensity by max. 10 percent weekly. You cannot "make up" for shorter exercises a few times a week with one strenuous, several-hour workout. The body should be gradually prepared for the increasing intensity of exercise. Otherwise, you expose your body to severe overload and numerous injuries.

7. Runner mistakes: overtraining

Too intense training does not have a positive effect on our condition and he alth. What's more, you also need to avoid too frequent exercise - it can lead to overtraining, which is a reduction in fitness in response to excessive strain.

The body needs rest and sufficient time to regenerate - the lack of them increases the risk of injury. Overtraining manifests itself, inter alia, in irritability, difficulty falling asleep and poor sleep quality, lowered immunity, headaches or decreased motivation.

Therefore, make sure that the breaks between workouts are long enough: the longer, the more intense the effort. Do not forget about a balanced diet and rehabilitation, a massage performed by an experienced physiotherapist accelerates regeneration and helps to avoid injuries.

Also remember to reduce the intensity of training approximately three weeks before the start. This will have a positive effect on the strength of the so-called "Fast" muscle fibers (type II).

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