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An endometrial biopsy can detect diseases that develop within the lining of the womb, such as endometrial cancer. What are the indications for an endometrial biopsy? How to prepare for it? What is it about? Does an endometrial biopsy hurt?

Endometrial biopsyinvolves taking a fragment of the uterine mucosa (endometrium) in order to view it - after appropriate preparation - under a microscope (histopathological examination). Endometrial biopsy detects diseases that develop within the lining of the uterine cavity.

Endometrial biopsy can be performed in two ways:

  • taking any fragment of the uterine mucosa - this iscystic uterine biopsy
  • viacurettage of the uterine cavity , i.e. by taking the entire contents of the uterine cavity

Curettage of the uterine cavity can replace a curettage biopsy of the endometrium, but a curettage biopsy of the endometrium, e.g. when endometrial cancer is suspected, cannot replace curettage of the entire uterine cavity. During a skew endometrial biopsy, the material is collected "blindly", so that smaller lesions may be overlooked.

Endometrial biopsy - indications

  • abnormal bleeding - in women over 40; in younger patients with risk factors for the development of endometrial cancer, as well as in women whose spotting / vaginal bleeding continues despite pharmacological treatment
  • infrequent periods (suggesting cycles are nonovulatory)
  • problems with getting pregnant - endometrial biopsy allows you to check whether these types of problems may be due to changes in the uterine cavity
  • suspicion of an ectopic pregnancy (after a negative Douglas puncture result)

How to prepare for the examination?

Before the endometrial biopsy, a gynecological examination and any other tests should be performed (depending on the patient's condition and the doctor's recommendations).

One of the most important tests is the one that will confirm or rule out pregnancy (endometrial biopsy may lead to miscarriage). In addition, you should not use any vaginals or tampons before the procedure.

How is an endometrial biopsy done?

Patientis placed on the gynecological chair (on the back with bent legs). Then the doctor places a speculum into the vagina and grasps the patient with a special tool, the so-called ball, the vaginal part of the cervix.

This is when the cervical canal is dilated. Then the doctor introduces a special tool into the genital tract that allows him to cut out any fragment of the endometrium. The next stage of the procedure is probing the uterine cavity with a special probe and collecting a fragment of the uterine mucosa, which is sent for histopathological examination.

In women who have given birth vaginally, endometrial biopsy is usually straightforward. It is more difficult to collect material in women who have not given birth or who have undergone Caesarean section and who have previously undergone cervical surgery, e.g. conization.

Endometrial biopsy - after the procedure

The patient remains under medical observation from several to several hours after the procedure. Spotting may persist for several days after treatment.

Your doctor may take an antibiotic for several days to prevent infection. Having sexual intercourse is possible after two weeks.

Endometrial biopsy - complications

Weakness, nausea, mild abdominal pain, uterine contractions are possible complications after an endometrial biopsy. The uterine wall may break through during the procedure, but this is rare.

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