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Cystoscopy is an examination of the bladder by visually examining the mucosa that lines the bladder with a speculum called a cystoscope. Bladder endoscopy is helpful in the diagnosis of urinary tract diseases.

Cystoscopyis most often performed under general anesthesia in hospital conditions, it takes about 5-10 minutes. They are carried out through a speculum called a cystoscope, which is approximately the diameter of a pen. There are two types of cystoscopes: flexible and rigid.

Cystoscopy: indications

The need for cystoscopy may be indicated by:

  • hematuria
  • urolithiasis
  • developmental defects of the urethra and bladder
  • urinary tract problems that do not respond to treatment or that develop after pelvic surgery

Cystoscopy is also performed regularly after removal of neoplasms, e.g. bladder papilloma. In addition, cystoscopy allows you to evaluate the initial segment of the ureters.

Cystoscopy - how is this bladder examination done?

A colonoscopy with a flexible cystoscope is usually used to find the cause of urinary symptoms, such as hematuria. Sometimes a local anesthetic gel is given to the urethra instead of a general anesthetic. The doctor then inserts a cystoscope into the bladder through the urethra. He examines its interior closely, and sometimes also takes fragments of tissue for analysis (biopsy).

Cystoscopy also allows you to remove some bladder tumors, or crush and remove stones from the bladder (called a cystolithotomy).

Cystoscopy with a flexible endoscope takes only a few minutes and usually does not require an overnight stay in the hospital. If further examinations or surgery are required, it may be necessary to perform a cystoscopy with a rigid speculum.

After examining the bladder with a cystoscope, you may feel some discomfort when urinating. You should drink plenty of fluids. To avoid urinary tract infections, your doctor will prescribe an antibiotic.

A rigid cystoscope examination is performed to detect the presence of stones,tumors or other pathological changes. During this test, many small procedures can be performed simultaneously, such as a biopsy or the destruction of abnormal tissue with the use of heat (so-called diathermy). Testing with rigid cytoscope can also be performed under local anesthesia.

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