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Most women experience problems with menstruation - painful menstruation, heavy bleeding, suspicious spotting. Find out about the causes of these troubles and ways to get your period back to normal. Which menstrual problems should make you visit a gynecologist?

Painful periods

Strong pains in the lower abdomen appear just before theperiodor at the very beginning of the bleeding. They are often accompanied by headaches, nausea, vomiting, constipation or diarrhea. Causes: Problems are most often caused by an excess of prostaglandins - hormones that are produced in the lining of the womb just before menstruation. They are responsible for excessive muscle contractions of the uterus and intrauterine vessels. Painful menstruation may also be caused by retroflexion or excessive anterior flexion of the uterine body, as well as adnexitis,endometriosis(growth of the endometrium outside the womb) and fibroids. Sometimespainful periodsis triggered by the contraceptive spiral What you can do: Ailments can be relieved painkillers (especially from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen or paracetamol which inhibit the secretion of prostaglandins) or relaxants (e.g. No-Spa), as well as rest, warm compresses on the abdomen or a gentle massage of the lower abdomen. You can also support yourself with herbs: during the day, drink an infusion of valerian (valerian), calendula, lemon balm. Also change your diet - avoid foods that are hard to digest, flatulent, s alty, do not drink strong tea, coffee and cola drinks (caffeine increases uterine contractions). If your periods have been normal so far and suddenly become painful, go to the gynecologist.

Problems with menstruation: heavy bleeding

During menstruation, 30-50 ml of blood is lost on average, which translates into the use of 4 tampons or 6 sanitary napkins a day. If the bleeding is too heavy, it exceeds 80 ml of blood. This is most easily verified by blood counts before and after menstruation. Causes: Heavy and prolonged bleeding may be caused by hormonal disorders, fibroids, polyps, and a tumor of the endometrium. What you can do: If your period is intermittently more heavy than usual, you have nothing to do withto bother. In order not to increase bleeding, avoid physical exertion, give up coffee, alcohol. Also, beware of aspirin, hot baths and do not put a hot water bottle on the lower abdomen (to ease the pain), because it can increase the bleeding. Drink nettle infusion, eat red meat, fish, egg yolks, liver, as well as whole grain bread, thick groats, lettuce , parsley - they have a lot of iron, the deficiency of which needs to be replaced. If profuse bleeding is frequent and prolonged, be sure to go to the gynecologist to find out what is the cause of the ailments.

Problems with menstruation: irregular cycles

In a normal menstrual cycle (counted from the first day of menstruation), bleeding occurs every 25-35 days. Deviation from this norm is justified only in a few cases: in the first 2 years from the beginning of menstruation, after childbirth, in the perimenopausal period (disturbances may last up to 5 years until the last menstruation). . strong stress, exhaustion, irregular lifestyle, intense exercise, colds, sleep disorders, tiring travels or climate change. Medications (e.g. psychotropic drugs, antibiotics) and discontinuation of the contraceptive pill may also have an impact. A delay in your period may be a sign of pregnancy. The cause of irregular cycles can also be, inter alia, endometrial hyperplasia, polycystic ovary syndrome (cycles lengthen to 50-70 days), hyperprolactinaemia (increased secretion of prolactin), hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, endometriosis (in this case the cycles shorten) What you can do: If your period is one week delayed, check that you are not pregnant. If you rule out such a possibility, and you have been under a lot of stress recently and have been upset at night or have lost weight rapidly, take care of a proper diet and a regular lifestyle - everything should return to normal after a few months. If bleeding occurs more often than every 25 days, or if you have already lost your next period and it cannot be justified by your lifestyle, be sure to see a gynecologist.

When your period does not come at all

The first menstruation (menarche) usually occurs between the ages of 10 and 16 (on average, between the ages of 11 and 12). If it does not appear until the age of 16, or if disturbing symptoms occur, such as virilization features (hirsutism, thickened voice, etc.), galactorrhea, excessive weight gain or loss - a visit to the gynecologist is necessary. It is also worth consulting a doctor when a 14-year-old girl has no signs of sexual maturation (no breasts, nounderarm and pubic hair appears). Primary amenorrhea is rare. It can be the result of hormonal disorders, dysgenesis (abnormal formation) of the gonads, sex differentiation disorders, malformations of the genital organs, and debilitating diseases (e.g. anorexia). Therefore, detailed diagnostics (including hormonal, genetic and imaging tests) is essential.

Suspicious spotting

This is any bleeding that occurs outside of your period (including after intercourse) and after the menopause. Causes: If your spotting spotting occurs around the middle of your cycle, it is most often a sign of ovulation. During this time, the level of estrogens decreases, the mucosa peels slightly and spotting may appear, sometimes accompanied by ovulatory pain. Bleeding between periods can also be caused by an intrauterine coil, birth control pills, or hormone replacement therapy. But spotting can also signal hormonal disorders, endometriosis, fibroids, polyps of the lining of the womb or cervix, cervical inflammation, erosions, endometrial hyperplasia, and - most importantly - cancer of the cervix or endometrium. What you can do: Better not postpone visits to the gynecologist - only a doctor can determine the real cause of the trouble.

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