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Modafinil is a substance that has been used in the treatment of narcolepsy for years. However, modafinil has become more widely known only recently, when corporate employees, students and athletes started using it on a large scale. It is said that even the president of the United States, Barack Obama, received him. Modafinil - like other psychostimulants, e.g. amphetamine - increases physical and mental performance, but unlike them, it has no side effects and is not addictive. Are you sure?

Modafinil(also known as smart drug) is astimulant substance found in some medications. Modafinil is currently approved in dozens of European countries, but the indications for its use in the Member States vary. In all the countries of the community, the indication is narcolepsy - a disease involving sudden falling into a short sleep, regardless of the situation in which the patient is. In addition, in some European Union countries the indications for its use are idiopathic hypersomnia (excessive sleepiness), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and chronic sleep disorders associated with moderate to severe shift work. In some countries it is also used off-label - e.g. to improve concentration in people with ADHD. In Poland, modafinil was available in the form of a drug called Vigil, but it was withdrawn from the market a few years ago. Currently, in our country, other stimulants are used in patients suffering from narcolepsy, e.g. methylphenidate. Those patients with contraindications to the use of methylphenidate receive modafinil as part of target import with an individual refund. There is also another way to buy this drug - on the black market. This path is chosen by corporate employees, students, athletes and others who do not have time to sleep and need psychomotor stimulation.

Modafinil - action. Modafinil effects

The trade names of modafinil vary by country. It is known as Provigil in the US, UK, Hong Kong and several other countries. In Japan and France it is known as Modiodal, and in Switzerland it is marketed as Modasomil.

It quickly turned out that white tablets containing modafinil canfree from sleep not only the sick, but also he althy people. Apparently, thanks to modafnil, you can stay awake for nearly 64 hours ( although some sources say even 70 hours) without fatigue, loss of mental efficiency or reflexes. And you do not need to sleep afterwards - the use of pharmaceuticals is not supposed to cause you to incur "sleep debt". In addition, there was information about the lack of addiction to modafinil and greater safety compared to classic stimulants. All this made modafinil interested primarily in corporate employees (especially senior management), as well as pre-session students, athletes, military people who conduct long-term operations and others who want to maintain full concentration, improve the ability to focus, increase motivation while performing tasks. , significantly increase the effectiveness of learning and improve memory, because sucheffectsgivesmodafinil.In addition, modafinil reduces jet lag. It was for this purpose that the President of the United States, Barack Obama, was supposed to use it on his business trips .¹

Several studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of modafinil. One of them compared the effects of dextroamphetamine (a drug that stimulates the nervous system - at a dose of 20 mg), caffeine (600 mg) and modafinil (400 mg) in he althy volunteers. People deprived of sleep for 64 hours performed simple tasks - the speed of their execution and the number of mistakes made were measured.

The analysis of the research results does not clearly answer the question whether its use to improve cognitive functions is justified. The stimulant properties of modafinil were not demonstrated for every study group.

Patients who took modafinil in a dose of 200 mg had a more fluent pronunciation, were able to express their thoughts better and made fewer mistakes than the control group. Interestingly, however, there were no statistically significant differences compared to caffeine .²

The effects of modafinil have also been studied in people who were given a normal amount of sleep. It turned out that a single administration of the drug in a dose of 100 or 200 mg did not improve their cognitive functions .²

The analysis of the research results does not clearly answer the question whether the use of modafinil to improve cognitive functions is justified. The stimulant properties of modafinil were not found in every study group.

Modafinil better than amphetamine?

Scientists from the Medical University of South Carolina have studied the preparation for 25 years and found that drug tolerance does not increase over time. There were also no symptoms of addiction. Other studies, in turnsuggest that modafinil has addictive potential, but this is minor. For this reason, modafinil may be useful in the treatment of addictions such as cocaine, methamphetamine and opiates .³

In addition, studies have shown that taking modafinil is not associated with excessive motor excitability. Although it is slightly elevated, it is not a disproportionate increase (as in the case of methamphetamine) .² So it works differently than stimulants such as amphetamine and its derivatives, which, in addition to mental arousal, cause agitation and restlessness, which is manifested by stereotypical movements (e.g. chewing, biting nails).

This doesn't mean, however, that modafinil is safe for your he alth. It causes a number of side effects. Some of them are dangerous to he alth and life.

Modafinil - side effects

The most commonly reported side effects of modafinil are: ³

  • high blood pressure
  • rash
  • headaches
  • nausea
  • nervousness
  • irritation, anger
  • dizziness
  • indigestion
  • insomnia
  • loss of appetite
  • dry mouth

In rare cases, modafinil may trigger:

Modafinil most commonly causes headaches in more than 1 in 10 people, insomnia, loss of appetite, and irritability. Deadly diseases are rare complications of modafinil use.

1) Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue

  • erythema multiforme
  • Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  • toxic epidermal necrolysis

2) Nervous system disorders

  • cerebrovascular disorders
  • convulsions
  • extrapyramidal symptoms

3) Mental disorders

  • suicidal thoughts / behavior
  • psychosis symptoms
  • mania symptoms

Similar stimulant effects can be obtained by using caffeine or guarana, which does not have such serious side effects.

4) Cardiovascular disorders

  • heart rhythm disturbance
  • circulatory failure
  • cardiomyopathy
  • ischemic heart disease

3) Mental disorders

  • suicidal thoughts / behavior
  • psychosis symptoms
  • mania symptoms

4) Cardiovascular disorders

  • heart rhythm disturbance
  • circulatory failure
  • cardiomyopathy
  • ischemic heart disease
Worth knowing

Modafinil - where can you buy? What's the price?

The drug can be brought to Poland as part of target import with an individual refund or bought on the black market, i.e. from an uncertain source. It can be imported, for example, from Great Britain, where a package with 10 tablets costs even less than £ 6 (about PLN 35). However, the growing interest in modafinil causes its prices to rise and you can find offers for PLN 80 on internet forums, but there are also offers for PLN 250.

Modafinil - contraindications

Due to the occurrence of severe skin reactions (Steven Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme) with an increased frequency in children, it indicates that the drug should not be used in the treatment of people under 18 years of age (exclusion ADHD treatment in this age group). Other often life-threatening side effects have also been observed. This prompted the EMA (European Medicines Agency) to conduct a benefit-risk analysis of the drug, which led to a reduction in the indications for modafinil. Currently, according to EMA guidelines, it should only be used to treat excessive sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, and only in people over 18 years of age. with the liver or heart and in people with mental disorders .³ People who are taking anticonvulsants, warfarin, propranolol, omeprazole, and oral contraceptives should consult their doctor before taking the drug.

Bibliography: 1. White House report suggests President Obama takes Modafinil or Armodafinil http://armodafinil.co/does-president-obama-take-armodafinil/2. Pietrzyk D., Modafinil - a new stimulant, "Gazeta Farmaceutyczna" 20133. Can Modafinil Help Treatment Cocaine or Amphetamine Addiction? http://americanaddictioncenters.org/addiction-medications/modafinil/

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