- Acquired heart defects - endocarditis
- Acquired heart defects - idiopathic calcification of the mitral valve ring
- Acquired heart defects - left ventricular papillary muscle dysfunction
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Acquired heart defects are usually the result of complications after infectious diseases, such as untreated angina. Bacterial agents directly damage the heart valves and stop closing properly. When the valves are not working properly, some cavities in the heart are put more strain than usual and either become larger or dilate. This is how acquired heart defects arise. Check which diseases may contribute to their formation and subsequent problems with circulation.
Acquired heart defectsare defects that occur after the birth of a child. Many years of experience show that acquired defects are valvular defects and rarely concern other structures of the heart. The most common acquired heart defects are mitral, tricuspid, aortic, and pulmonary valve stenosis.
Acquired heart defects - endocarditis
Endocarditis is an inflammation of the lining of the heart or the valves of the heart. Inflammation can be the result of a bacterial infection or rheumatic disease.
Bacterial infection very often occurs during minor surgical, gynecological or dental procedures. Bacteria, which enter the blood during these procedures, locate on the valves, causing the formation of inflammatory infiltrates, which lead to ulceration, perforation, and thus - deformation of the valves. This produces acquired heart defects, the first symptom of which is abnormal murmurs. In the case of bacterial endocarditis, fever and increased heart rate are also present.
Rheumatic endocarditisis the result of the inflammation of the endocardium or the entire heart muscle in the course of rheumatic fever. Rheumatic disease occurs most often in 5-15 years old children as a consequence of improperly treated purulent angina caused by streptococci. As a result of an abnormal immune reaction in the course of rheumatic disease, the valves may be damaged and the stenosis or regurgitation of the valve may develop. This type of defect is most often recognized after many years.
Rheumatic endocarditis usually affects the left ventricle, which is why heart defects are usually acquiredthey touch the mitral or crescent-shaped valve of the aorta. The entire connective tissue is inflamed. However, it is usually located in the heart, especially in the endocardium and heart muscle.
Acquired heart defects - idiopathic calcification of the mitral valve ring
A common cause of non-inflammatory regurgitation, and later mitral stenosis, is idiopathic calcification of the mitral annulus (in patients with arterial hypertension). Idiopathic calcification, a deposition of calcium s alts in the tissues whose causes are unknown, arises in the fibrous ring that supports the mitral valve that controls blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle. As a result of this process, the elasticity of the heart tissues is lost.
Acquired heart defects - left ventricular papillary muscle dysfunction
In the left ventricle of the heart there are 2 papillary muscles, which are the site of attachment of the tendon cords connecting the papillary muscle with the valve leaflets. In the course of heart disease, mainly ischemic heart disease, dysfunction of these muscles occurs. The consequence of this process is the displacement of the mitral (mitral) valve leaf or leaflets between the left atrium and the ventricle during contraction, which is manifested by mitral valve prolapse syndrome.