- 12 most dangerous antibiotic-resistant bacteria
- Antibiotics less and less effective. "Patients will die of infections"
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The World He alth Organization WHO has published a list of the 12 most dangerous bacteria to he alth and life, which are not affected by currently available antibiotics. New, more effective treatments are needed. Otherwise, millions of patients will die of infections. Scientists predict that by 2050 - unless new drugs are found - bacteria will kill up to 10 million people a year.
The World He alth Organization has published a list of the 12 most dangerous bacteria to he alth and life, which most often caused disease and which sometimes became resistant to all available drugs. - Antibiotic resistance is increasing significantly, so science and medicine are forced to invent alternative methods of fighting bacteria as soon as possible - Dr. Marie-Paule Kieny, specialist at WHO.
According to WHO data, at least 700,000 people die each year due to infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. By 2050, if new drugs are not found, bacteria will kill up to 10 million people a year.
12 most dangerous antibiotic-resistant bacteria
Experts from WHO have divided dangerous bacteria into three categories, based on the urgency of the need to develop new antibiotics. The first group is bacteria, which are a critical priority because they are the most dangerous and new drugs to fight them should be found as soon as possible.
1. Acinetobacter baumannii - resistant to carbapenems
This bacterium is found in soil, water, food, sewage. It can lead to urinary tract infections, wound infections, severe pneumonia and sepsis, fatal in half of the cases. Infection often occurs in hospitals (it is a threat primarily to immunocompromised patients staying in intensive care units) and long-term care homes.
2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (blue oil rod) - resistant to carbapenems
It is a bacterium that lives mainly in water and soil, but can also be found on the skin of humans and animals. It can lead to skin infections, infections of the digestive and respiratory systems, urinary tract, otitis media and outer ear,sinusitis, eye infections, endocarditis and pericarditis. It most often causes infection in immunocompromised people.
3. Enterobacteria, resistant to carbapenems, e.g. E. coli
Enterobacteria are common - everyone is a carrier. They are one of the most common causes of infection in hospitals outside of hospitals. It contributes to urinary tract infections, liver abscesses, peritonitis, cholangitis, meningitis, and blood and lung infections. The most at risk of infection are the elderly and those with reduced immunity.Important
The top three bacteria in the list have caused the most infections in he althcare settings. At the same time, they are resistant to many antibiotics, including carbapenems believed to be the most effective. 'These bacteria are responsible for high patient mortality,' said WHO's Dr. Marie-Paule Kieny. "New, more effective treatments are needed," she added.
The second group is bacteria that should become a high priority, also requiring immediate treatment and expansion of research into more effective drugs than those used so far.
4. Enterococcus faecium - vancomycin resistant
These bacteria occur naturally in the human body, mainly in the last section of the digestive tract, and also in the mouth. However, in weakened and elderly patients after surgery, they can cause endocarditis, urinary tract infection and general postoperative infections.
According to WHO data, at least 700,000 people die each year due to infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. They predict that by 2050, unless new drugs are found, bacteria will kill up to 10 million people a year.
5. Staphylococcus aureus (golden staph) - resistant to methicillin, indirectly to vancomycin
Staphylococci commonly live on our skin. Especially on the lining of the nose. However, under the influence of surgery, patient weakness can cause infections.
The most common are skin and soft tissue infections (in the form of boils, cluster boils, purulent lesions around the hair follicles and other purulent infections).
6. Helicobacter pylori - clarithromycin resistant
It is a stick that inhabits the gastric mucosa. WHO estimates that about 70 percent are infected with this bacterium. people in developing countries and approx. 30 percent. in developed countries. This bacterium increases the risk of developing gastritis, and further lead to itthe formation of ulcers and even stomach cancer.
H. pylori accounts for approximately 80 percent. cases of gastric ulcer and 90 percent. cases of duodenal ulcer.
7. More than a dozen Campylobacter strains - resistant to fluoroquinolones
Campylobacter causes campylobacteriosis - a zoonotic disease. Campylobacter is commonly found in slaughter animals, especially in poultry, but it does not harm it.
In humans, it can cause diarrhea, headache, nausea, fever, and even more serious complications in the form of inflammation of the stomach and intestines or arthritis. Slaughterhouse workers, farm staff and veterinarians are particularly exposed to campylobacteriosis.
8. Salmonella - fluoroquinolone resistant
Salmonella, or rather bacteria from the Salmonella enterica group, or paradurus sticks, cause gastrointestinal ailments, i.e. food poisoning. They are dangerous because they can even lead to infection of internal organs and joint diseases.
9. Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) - resistant to cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones
This bacterium causes one of the sexually transmitted diseases - gonorrhea. It can also contribute to the infection of other systems, especially in immunocompromised patients.
Newborns may be infected during delivery by maternal infection, which is most often manifested by gonococcal conjunctivitis, which, if left untreated, can even lead to blindness.
|Priority: Critical||Priority: high||Priority: Medium|
|1. Acinetobacter baumannioporous to carbapenems 2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (blue oil rod) resistant to carbapenems 3. Enterobacteria (e.g. E. coli) resistant to carbapenems||4) Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium5) Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin, indirectly to vancomycin6. Helicobacter pylori (clarithromycin-resistant) 7. Campylobacter resistant to fluoroquinolones 8. Salmonella (fluoroquinolone resistant) 9. Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) resistant to cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones||10. Streptococcus pneumoniae not susceptible to penicillin 11. Haemophilus influenzae (ampicillin resistant) 12. Shigella (dysentery) resistant to fluoroquinolones|
The third group is bacteria, which are a medium priority when it comes to the need to invent new drugs.
10. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus, diphtheria) - penicillin insensitive
Pneumococcal can cause acute pneumonia, meningitis, blood poisoning (bacteraemia), generalized blood poisoning (sepsis). Infection occurs when bacteria enter the lower respiratory tract through the nose or throat.
Pneumococci are dangerous for two reasons - they spread by airborne droplets. And because it likes the mucosa of the nose and throat, it easily penetrates further - e.g. into the lungs or the brain. Second, we are born with the gift of recognizing and combating (producing antibodies) only one strain of pneumococcus.
When a bacterium from a different strain enters the body, the immune system cannot defeat it and a disease develops - often pneumococcal, acute pneumonia. It is possible to protect the youngest from this dangerous pathogen through a vaccine.
11. Haemophilus influenzae (influenza rod) - ampicillin resistant
Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), i.e. hemophilic rod type B, is a bacterium that can cause many dangerous diseases, including severe pneumonia, meningitis. Additionally, it most often attacks children up to 5 years old. It is possible to protect the youngest from this dangerous pathogen through a vaccine.
12. More than a dozen strains of Shigella (dysentery) - resistant to fluoroquinolones
The bacterium spreads along with the excretion of feces by carriers (carriers are people who have had the disease, but have not treated it - they themselves have no symptoms of infection, but their stools contain pathogenic bacteria) and sick people, and to infection it usually comes from dirty hands, through infected food or groundwater.
Symptoms of infection are diarrhea with an admixture of blood, fever, less often vomiting. Untreated dysentery can be fatal.
Antibiotics less and less effective. "Patients will die of infections"
- WHO publishes list of bacteria for which new antibiotics are urgently needed, www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2017/bacteria-antibiotics-needed/en/
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