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Cyclophrenia is an old name, less frequently used today, for a mental illness in which depressive phases occur cyclically or alternately with the phases of depression and mania. The term cyclophrenia has been replaced by unipolar or bipolar disorder.

Cyclophrenia( unipolar or bipolar disorder ) is a disease in which pathological changes in mood occur periodically: depression, i.e. sadness, depression and loss of will to live, or depression and mania, i.e. unnaturally elevated mood, euphoria, grand thoughts and a tendency to dangerous behavior.

Currently, psychiatrists use the following names:unipolar disorder(if the patient has recurring depression bouts) orbipolar disorder(bipolar disorder) when has phases of depression and mania.

Cyclophrenia: causes

Scientists and doctors are unable to pinpoint a clear cause of affective disease. Certainly, it is largely determined by genetic tendencies. In addition, it is believed that it is associated with periodically abnormal transformations of important neurotransmitters: catecholamine, dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin. Unfortunately, it is not known what these disorders are caused by. Scientists also take into account the importance of brain microtraumas.

It has been found that bipolar disorder (with alternating phases of depression and mania) are people at greater risk of lonely people, deprived of social support, experiencing difficult, stressful negative events. Disturbances in the hormones secreted in the body's reaction to stress are characteristic in bipolar disorder. Brain studies of patients with affective disorder have also shown changes in the structures of the brain. Some of the centers are expanding, for example those responsible for emotions, but they are less effective. Brain functions also become uncoordinated.


What to do when a loved one has an affective disorder?

Patients with severe, endogenous depression need to be supported and soothed. They must not be advised to pull themselves together because they are incapable of it. By such behavior, we only fuel the already strong feeling of guilt. They need to be told that their condition is a result of their disease and motivated to treat. Sometimes the sick fall into such a self-destructive mood that they refuse to admit itdrugs. If we cannot provide round-the-clock care for a depressed person who has thoughts of suicide, he should definitely be hospitalized. Manic patients must also be protected against themselves. In the acute phase, keep an eye on taking sedatives, and when they start to endanger your he alth and life - persuade you to go to the hospital.

Cyclophrenia - symptoms

In the depressive phase, the patient is sad, depressed and has black thoughts. He is apathetic, devoid of energy, it is difficult for him to mobilize himself to act, everything seems too difficult for him, he feels that he is unable to cope with anything, he often accuses himself and undermines his own worth. It manifests itself in neglect of daily activities, inability to work, even in slow movements. The patient also has problems with memory, concentration and decreased mental performance. Often there is an obsessive focus on one dominant thought that he cannot give up. All these disorders are accompanied by anxiety and a strong sense of guilt. The condition is so unpleasant and difficult that the patient has suicidal thoughts and often attempts suicide to free himself from it. This kind of endogenous (internal) depression in unipolar disorder, if left untreated, lasts 6-9 months. This is followed by a period of remission of 6-10 years. The next relapses occur more often, 7-8 times in the patient's life.

Bipolar Affective Disorder

In bipolar disorder, the depressive phase has a similar course to that in unipolar disorder. For her, however, the appearance of the mania phase is also characteristic. It does not happen alternately. The manic episode may follow one another, may follow several depressive episodes, or alternate with depression. The disease is slightly different in each patient, hence it is not easy to diagnose. Mania is characterized by the fact that the patient is constantly aroused, in a euphoric mood, full of ideas and vigor. He infects with joy and optimism, has great plans, and is often convinced of his uniqueness. People who are in a milder state, the so-called hypomania, and their behaviors are within tolerance, are considered wonderful companions, have the opposite sex, and are popular in society. They do not lack charm, and their energy is extremely attractive. A manic mood has its downside, however. When intensified, it leads to dangerous behaviors: gambling, careless driving, taking dangerous actions, using stimulants. Often people in the mania phase without memory spend or give away money, invest it risky, lose it, fall prey to fraudsters. They lose their fortune, they stopbecome dangerous to themselves and their loved ones. They grow irritable and explosive, they become impatient and unpredictable. The mania phase, if left untreated, can last for days, months, or years. And it is difficult to predict what episode - mania or depression - will follow the period of disease remission.

This will be useful to you

Bipolar disorder, although it is a challenging and can be a source of suffering, with good patient management and cooperation, does not have to ruin his life. The best proof of this are the celebrities of BD: Sting and Axel Rose (musicians), Jean-Claude Van Damme (actor and athlete), Vivien Leigh (actress) and Virginia Woolf (writer).

ChAD: when to see a doctor

If the depression phase lasts a month, and the mania phase lasts a week - see a psychiatrist. If the depressed patient has suicidal thoughts, and the manic person has a tendency to dangerous, endangering and other behaviors (e.g. gambling that endangers financial resources, dangerous car or motorbike rides, drunkenness or taking drugs), you should react earlier. The doctor must conduct a very detailed interview and exclude other diseases that cause similar symptoms, e.g. anxiety disorders, ADHD, addictions, multiple sclerosis, lupus, brain tumor, epilepsy, AIDS or encephalitis. This will require specialized tests and, possibly, consultation with other specialists. The sick person may therefore be detained in the hospital.

BD: treatment

Patients with affective disease, depending on the phase, are given antidepressants and mood stabilizers, as well as antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and other types of neuroleptics useful in a specific, specific case. People in the mania phase are given sedatives and tranquilizers. Psychotherapy is also used. Doctors believe that cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, which examines the relationship between thinking, behavior and mood, is especially effective. Affective disorder, both unipolar and bipolar disorder, is incurable. You can bear its symptoms, but we cannot stop or predict its recurrence. Some of the acute-phase medications must be taken for life. Doctors often recommend taking lithium s alts daily to help stabilize your mood. Psychoeducation and the patient's cooperation are very helpful. A regulated lifestyle, avoiding stress, systematic physical activity and a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which are a mood stabilizer, have a stabilizing effect on the mood. Self-observation of the patient is also very useful, e.g. keeping a diary in which he writes down his mental state, mood, reactions toanxieties. This makes it possible to catch very early episodes of mania or depression and apply appropriate pharmacology to protect patients from devastating mood swings and their consequences.

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