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Hyperostosis stiffening the spine - as the name suggests - reduces the flexibility of the spine, and at the same time causes chronic and discomforting in everyday life, but not too severe pain. It can radiate to the extremities, locate in the joints and cause numbness in the arms or legs, and limit joint mobility throughout the body.
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis(Generalized Spontaneous Hyperplasia of the Bone, Forestier's Disease, Forestiere-Rotes-de Querol Disease, Eng.diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, DISH) belongs to the degenerative diseases - it is one of the non-inflammatory spondyloarthritis - diseases of the joints involving the joints of the spine.
Hyperostosis has become a separate disease relatively recently, only in 1997.
Affects primarily the elderly - usually occurs between the ages of 50 and 70, more often in men. It is favored by dyslipidemia (abnormal levels of blood lipids and lipoproteins) and hyperuricemia (excessive levels of uric acid in the body). Ferstier's disease is clearly more common in people with diabetes - it occurs in 13-49 percent of diabetics, while among the general population it affects from 1.6 to 13 percent.
The causes of hyperostosis are not yet well understood. Experts agree that mechanical factors, dietary factors, long-term use of certain antidepressants and retinoids (e.g., in the treatment of acne), contribute to the appearance of Ferestier's symptoms, but a direct causal relationship has not yet been established. Doctors, however, distinguish between primary degenerative disease, which is an ailment in itself but with unspecified causes, and secondary, resulting from injuries, congenital defects in the structure of the spine, metabolic diseases, inflammatory diseases of the joints, hormonal disorders, deposition of calcium and phosphorus compounds in the joints. , nerve damage and many other causes.
Morphological, biochemical, molecular and biomechanical changes in cells lead to softening and gradual loss of articular cartilage and hardening and thickening of bone tissue. The progression of the disease is usually accompanied by a not very active inflammatory process, which rarely causes small exudates,as well as back pain.
In the course of Forestier's disease, pseudo-osteophytes are formed in the area of the thoracic and cervical vertebrae. parrot beaks, which include at least 4 vertebrae. It is accompanied by calcification and ossification of the surrounding paraspinal ligaments, located in most cases on the right side.
The basis for diagnosis is an X-ray examination of the spine. Any changes caused by hyperostasis are clearly visible on it: their appearance is sometimes pictorially depicted as similar to a parrot's beak or stearin infiltration.
An orthopedic surgeon is a specialist in the diagnosis and treatment.
Bone growth is characteristic of Farestier's disease at the places where it connects with tendons, fasciae, articular capsules, and fibrous rings, all of which are visible on X-rays.
The presence of calcifications in the subcutaneous tissue, in the pubic symphysis, cervical and sacro-coccygeal ligaments, tendons of the triceps, infamellar and Achilles muscles, as well as in the sciatic tumor or in the quadriceps muscle of the thigh, is also characteristic of disseminated spontaneous hyperostosis of the skeleton. You can also observe thickening of the inner lamina of the frontal bone, thickening inflammation of the ilium (Latinosteitis condensans ilii ) and, although rarely, changes in the peripheral joints.
How is hyperostosis treated?
The basis of the treatment is, first of all, comprehensive symptomatic treatment, which consists in changing the lifestyle and diet, and rehabilitation. Pharmacological treatment is only complementary and is selected individually depending on whether the degenerations are primary, or are the result of other diseases or injuries, the course of the disease, the intensity of symptoms, the severity of pain and progress in conservative treatment.
People suffering from hyperostosis are advised to reduce their body weight (applies to overweight people), exercise daily, though not too strenuous, recreational swimming, cycling - in general: as much as possible, not too intense exercise.
A doctor may also order outpatient physiotherapy treatments to improve treatment or refer the patient to comprehensive sanatorium treatment. The following seem to be particularly helpful in the fight against hyperostosis:
Some people say that acupuncture helps them.
People who are elderly or those who are advancedstage of hyperostosis, they should be equipped with orthopedic equipment to facilitate movement and everyday functioning: shoe insoles, joint stabilizers, a cane, crutches, and finally a corset or a walking frame.