- Osteoporosis - types
- Diagnosis of osteoporosis
- Osteoporosis -risk factors for osteoporotic fractures
- Senile osteoporosis - treatment, prevention
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Senile (involution) osteoporosis is the result of changes in the metabolism of bones taking place with age, which lead to their weakening, increasing the susceptibility to fractures. And those in old age can be really dangerous. Check who is at risk of osteoporosis and how to prevent it.
Senile osteoporosisis a metabolic bone disease that occurs in old age. It is manifested by bone fractures resulting from reduced bone mass and disturbances in the spatial architecture of the bone tissue. Osteoporosis is common among the elderly. Every third postmenopausal woman suffers from it. The risk of fractures in men is lower than in women, which is influenced by differences in the hormonal balance.
Osteoporosis - types
- postmenopausal osteoporosis - women over 50 suffer from this type of disease. Its main cause is estrogen deficiency; it is dynamic and is characterized by a large loss of bone mass; fractures most often occur around the radius
- senile osteoporosis - affects elderly women and men, bone loss is slower, and fractures mainly affect the vertebrae and hip
- secondary osteoporosis - about 20% of all cases of the disease, may be caused by early medication and illnesses, affects people of all ages, regardless of gender
Diagnosis of osteoporosis
- FRAX Calculator
The FRAX algorithms report a ten-year risk of fracture. This way you can find out what is the risk of a hip fracture, spine, forearm or humerus fracture.
- DEXA bone densinometry
Osteoporosis can be diagnosed if the T-index is less than 2.5 in the densimetry. However, it should be remembered that this examination should not determine the initiation of treatment, as many osteoporotic fractures occur at normal T-index values or at the border of normal.
- Radiological examination is used to determine the type of fracture
- Imaging tests
Tomography and MRI are not necessary to diagnose osteoporosis, but they can be helpful in determining the details before the planned procedures.
Osteoporosis -risk factors for osteoporotic fractures
- body weight
- fracture of proximal femur in parents (BKKU)
- alcohol abuse
- chronic glucocorticoid treatment
- rheumatoid arthritis
- secondary osteoporosis
- DXA test result
Senile osteoporosis - treatment, prevention
Treatment of osteoporosis consists in eliminating risk factors and increasing the strength of bones against fracture.
vitamin D - cholecalciferol or its derivatives, taken once a day, reduce the dose by half in summer
Beware of overdosing!
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin and in the case of its excess it can be stored in the body
of calcium - it is recommended to take supplements with calcium carbonate during meals. There is a risk of hypercalcemia with excessive supplementation, so take calcium according to your doctor's recommendations.
It is important to follow a diet rich in calcium, which is an essential part of bone building. Protein is also an important element of the diet, however, its excess should be avoided because it increases the excretion of calcium from the body.
How does it increase calcium absorption?
- maintaining a favorable ratio of calcium to phosphorus in consumed foods
- sufficiently high vitamin D intake
- proper functioning of the digestive tract and secretion of adequate amounts of gastric acid
What makes us absorb less calcium?
- incorrect ratio of calcium to phosphorus in the diet
- insufficient vitamin D intake
- presence of oxalate in the diet
- excessive consumption of alcohol, caffeine
- functional disorders of the digestive tract
Too much phosphorus in the diet hinders the absorption of calcium in the digestive system. It is important that the molar ratio of calcium to phosphorus is 1: 1 for adults and 1.2: 1 for children.
Each cup of coffee causes a loss of about 5 mg of calcium, so don't overdo it, especially in old age. It is worth adding milk to it to replenish the losses.
- Drugs to reduce the risk of bone fractures
- bidphosphonates - have the effect of reducing the rate of bone loss, you can take them in the form of tablets or
- strontium renelate - reduces resorption and increases bone reconstruction
- raloxifene - reduces the number of vertebral fractures, but no effect on other bones was noted
- denosumab - a biological drug with a favorable metabolic profile , reduces the number of bone fractures (femoral neck, vertebrae)
- teriparatide - increases the concentration of calcium in the blood and stimulates bone reconstruction
Smoking accelerates the development of osteoporosis. In smokers, the concentration of toxic substances increases, while the concentration of calcium decreases. It is less absorbed, making bones more prone to fractures.
- Physical activity
Regular physical training improves the functioning of the cardiovascular system, aerobic capacity, and prevents negative changes in the musculoskeletal system. Systematic physical activity contributes to the reduction of pain in diseases of the skeletal system.
Regular exercise is an inexpensive and affordable remedy for everyone. However, it should be remembered that the doctor recommends the appropriate activity for a given patient and indicates exercises that should not be performed with certain diseases.About the authorNatalia MłyńskaStudent of medicine at the Medical University of Lodz. Medicine is her greatest passion. He also loves sports, mainly running and dancing. She would like to treat her future patients in such a way as to see them as a human being, not only a disease.See the gallery of 11 photos