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The kidney profile is a blood and urine test that assesses how your kidneys are working. They are performed not only when kidney disease is suspected - for the purpose of their diagnosis, but also, inter alia, to monitor the treatment of kidney disease, e.g. in people on dialysis. What are the other indications for a renal profile? What are the standards? How to interpret the test results?

The kidney profileare blood and urine tests that assess how your kidneys are working. The renal profile consists of an electrolyte test (sodium and potassium), urea, creatinine, uric acid and a urinalysis. It is all these tests performed together that allow for a real assessment of the work of the kidneys and the entire urinary system.

Indications for a kidney profile

The indication for a kidney profile is symptoms of abnormal kidney function. The tests are then performed to diagnose the disease that may be the cause of this condition (not always just kidney disease). A renal profile may also be performed to monitor the treatment of kidney disease (e.g. in people on dialysis) or to assess kidney function while taking medication. In addition, the kidney profile is performed in people after kidney transplantation.

Kidney profile - how to interpret the test results?

1.Electrolytes(sodium, potassium) - these elements are responsible for the body's water and electrolyte balance. The increase in sodium concentration (hypernatremia) may be caused, among others, by excessive loss of clean water by the kidneys; and reduction (hyponatraemia) with loss of sodium-containing water, e.g. from renal dysfunction. Excess potassium can also indicate kidney failure.

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2. Urea is the main nitrogenous product of protein degradation and is removed from the body mainly by the kidneys. Elevated serum urea levels may be seen, inter alia, in o acute or chronic renal failure, or even non-renal failure of the kidneys (e.g. obstruction of the ureters). However, it should be remembered that the concentration of urea depends on many factors, therefore other indicators, e.g. creatinine or ammonia concentration, should also be determined in order to make a diagnosis.


Renal profile - norms

  • electrolytes - blood sodium 135-145 mmol / l, potassium: 3.5-5 mmol / l
  • urea - in the blood 2.0-6.7 mmol / l(15-40 mg / dL), Urea Nitrogen (BUN): 7-18 mg / dL
  • creatinine - in the blood 62-124 mmol / l (0.7-1.4 mg / dl)
  • uric acid - in the blood 0.15-0.45 mmol / l (2.5-8.0 mg / dl)
  • general urine test:

- color - it should have a straw color - transparency - it should be clear or slightly opalescent - specific gravity - 1018-1030 g / l- pH - the average correct value is 6- Urobilinogen - the correct result is the "+" sign

3. Creatinine is a product of creatine metabolism - a nitrogen compound found in tissues, which is excreted from the body in the urine. Increased creatinine levels may indicate acute renal failure caused by shock, urinary retention, damage to the renal parenchyma (by toxins and drugs), circulatory disorders, or chronic renal failure, which may be caused by glomerulonephritis. Usually, the glomerular filtration rate (so-called GFR, creatinine clearance) is also calculated simultaneously.

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4. Uric acid is the end product of the metabolism of purine bases. An increase in uric acid levels may indicate, inter alia, for kidney failure or nephrolithiasis, as well as for gout. In turn, the decrease in concentration may be the result of an increase in renal secretion, e.g. in SIADH, i.e. in Schwartz-Bartter syndrome (syndrome of inappropriate vasopressin release).

5. A general urine test assesses the color, clarity, specific gravity and pH of the urine, as well as detects the presence of undesirable elements in the urine, such as Protein, blood, glucose (indicates diabetes), bilirubin (suggests liver disease), bacteria and dice. In the case of kidney disease, the most important indicator of kidney failure is the presence of protein in the urine.

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