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Eczema on the face is especially problematic due to its severe localization. It can make life very difficult and lower your self-esteem. Eczema is an imprecise term for eczema and is not used in professional medical terminology, although the word is still widely used today. The term eczema covers several allergic and non-allergic diseases that are manifested by eczema-like skin lesions. What are the causes of eczema and how can we treat it?

Egzemais a colloquial term for a certain group of dermatological diseases. The word eczema comes from the Latin word "eczema". Eczema is often defined as skin diseases such as contact eczema, occupational eczema, seborrheic eczema, or atopic dermatitis. Eczema can appear in almost any location, but it isfacial eczemathat causes the most negative emotions among patients.

Eczema - what diseases does it include?

Eczema is a colloquial name for a certain group of dermatological diseases. Under the term eczema, patients often mean the following dermatoses:

  • contact eczema(contact dermatitis) - in this disease, due to contact with an allergen, inflammatory changes appear on the skin in the form of exudative papules and vesicles. Skin changes can be caused by a variety of factors that come into contact with the skin. Factors that can trigger symptoms include some metals, including cob alt and nickel (found, for example, in buttons on clothes), or plastics, rubber, or chrome (found in, for example, matches and fabric dyes). Some cosmetics or hair dyes can also cause symptoms of the disease,
  • occupational eczema- most often appears on the face and hands, under the influence of metals (chrome, nickel, cob alt), rubber components, but also epoxies (epoxies are used in the paint or electrotechnical industry),
  • seborrhoeic eczema- the underlying cause of this dermatosis is the occurrence of seborrhea, although this condition is not always associated with this disease. The most common localization of skin lesions in this case is the hairy scalp, face, behind the ear area, andalso the area of ​​the sternum and the interscapular area. The causes of seborrheic eczema are thought to be, among others. in fungal infections and hormonal disorders,
  • sweat eczema- most often occurs on the skin of the hands and feet. In this case, skin changes take the form of vesicles. These symptoms may be due to exposure to allergens such as nickel and cob alt. Interestingly, the eruptions on the hands can also be accompanied by mycosis located within the feet, which results from an allergic reaction to the antigens of the fungus,
  • atopic dermatitis (AD)- this disease is also commonly referred to as eczema. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic skin disease, and genetic, immunological and environmental factors play a significant role in its etiology. Symptoms of atopic dermatitis typically appear in early childhood.

Eczema on the face - symptoms

Eczema can actually appear on the skin in almost any location. However, facial eczema is particularly problematic for the patient.

Skin eruptions around the face have a negative impact on the psychological sphere and significantly worsen the quality of life of patients.

The type of skin changes that appear on the face depends on a specific disease entity.

Facial eczema in the course of contact and occupational eczema

In the case of eczema occurring in the course of contact and occupational eczema, erythematous as well as erythematous-papular eruptions may appear on the face, which are vaguely demarcated from unchanged skin.

The skin is red and irritated, and skin lesions may be itchy. The skin eruptions that may also appear in the course of this dermatosis are vesicles, i.e. changes raised above the surface of the skin and filled with fluid.

Eczema on the face in the course of seborrheic eczema

In the case of seborrheic eczema on the face, we can observe erythematous changes accompanied byexfoliation , and sometimes alsoexudation . Moreover, the presence of yellow, sometimes layeredscabs .

Eruptions typically occupy the skin of the lower face and the skin around the eyebrows, forehead and nasolabial folds. A hairy scalp may also be affected.

Skin changes may be accompanied byitching . In addition, the chronic course of this condition may be associated with thinning of hair and eyebrows.

A characteristic feature of atopic dermatitis eczema islichenization . Lichenization of the skin is manifested by thickening of the epidermis. Looking at the skinyou can get the impression that you are looking at it through a magnifying glass.

Eczema-type skin lesions may also occur within the hairy scalp. The auricles are also often affected. The eyebrows may thin out, which is especially noticeable in their outer parts. The symptom of eyebrow thinning in the course of AD is calledHertogh's symptom .

Eczema on the face - skin care

In the event of eczema lesions on the face, it is worth taking a look at the cosmetics we use every day. It is recommended to use hypoallergenic cosmetics (i.e. cosmetics intended for sensitive skin), which will not irritate our skin.

In the course of eczema, especially in the case of atopic dermatitis (AD), emollients, i.e. cosmetics with a strong moisturizing effect, are recommended.

It is also worth taking a look at the powders and softeners that we use to wash our clothes and bedding, including pillowcases. Some laundry products contain irritants that can cause eczema.

It is also advisable to analyze what substances we are exposed to at work and, if possible, we should minimize contact with substances that cause symptoms.

Eczema on the face - treatment

Eczema on the face requires consultation with a dermatologist, and sometimes also with an allergist, in order to clarify the cause of eczema lesions. Treatment depends on the specific form of the disease.

Treatment of seborrheic eczema

In the case of seborrheic eczema, shampoos and creams with ketoconazole are used primarily. It is a substance with antifungal properties.

Sometimes topical preparations with steroids are also used, but you should be aware that you should be very careful when using steroids on the skin of the face and strictly follow the recommendations of a specialist dermatologist.

Treatment of AD eczema

In the case of eczema in the course of atopic dermatitis, topical treatment includes tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, i.e. calcineurin inhibitors and steroid drugs.

Calcineurin inhibitors have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In general therapy, drugs such as cyclosporine, methotrexate and azathioprine are used.

General medications are used to treat more advanced stages of atopic dermatitis. These drugs have an immunosuppressive effect, i.e. they inhibit the immune system.

Treatmentcontact eczema

In the case of eczema in the course of contact eczema, ointments and creams with steroids are used (it should be emphasized to remember to use these preparations carefully on the face!).

In the case of keratinized lesions, you can use preparations with salicylic acid or urea to soften the skin and exfoliate the callous epidermis.

Treatment of eczema in the course of occupational eczema

In the case of eczema in the course of occupational eczema, prevention of skin lesions is essential.

This prophylaxis consists, among other things, in daily bathing immediately after work, using protective clothing or proper hygiene of production halls. These behaviors are aimed at minimizing contact with factors that cause skin changes.

If disturbing skin lesions appear on your face, it is worth contacting your family doctor who will decide whether treatment and consultation with a specialist is necessary. Any preparations intended for the skin of the face should be used according to the doctor's recommendations.

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