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The formation of pimples on the skin is associated with acne, a skin disease rich in sebaceous glands. Acne is a common condition that often occurs in both men and women during adolescence. In men, it is more severe. Acne is most common in areas rich in sebaceous glands, i.e. in the T-zone on the face and in the sweat gutters on the chest and back.
Acnebegins with the enlargement of the sebaceous glands and increased secretion ofsebum . There is an excessive and altered keratinization of the hair follicle outlet, into which the sebaceous gland duct penetrates. This creates a horn plug that fills the hair follicle and pushes it upwards. The production of sebum is blocked and a pouch filled with fats and keratin is created, i.e.blackhead(comedo). With the formation of blackheads, bacteria that normally exist in and on the skin as harmless microbes multiply rapidly. Only tallow makes them eaten, it is an excellent medium for them and creates conditions for multiplication.
This is how a pimple is formed
Bacteria release enzymes (lipases) that break down neutral fats from sebum into smaller particles (free fatty acids). It is these fatty acids that cause inflammation. The number of infected cells and secretions filling the pouch increases. There is less and less space there, which increases the pressure on the walls of the hair follicle blocked with the horn plug. At some point, the walls do not withstand the pressure, they break, and the contents spill onto the surrounding tissue. Acute inflammation develops, and pustules form.
Pimples - varieties
Common acne can have different stages. The first type of acne is characterized by blackheads that persist for months or even years into adolescence. There are open and closed blackheads. In closed comedones, the mouth of the follicle is blocked, a whitish papule and a sebaceous horny plug can be seen from under the skin. Contamination and pus accumulation are common because the contents of the bellows cannot leak out. In open comedones, the mouth does not close, a black spot is visible. It has nothing to do with dirt, as is commonly believed. The black color is due to the oxidation of the horn-fat plug.The next stage of acne is acne papulopustolosa. Inflammatory changes, papules and pustules have already formed in the blackhead. This stage can go on for years. Almost every pustule leaves a concave (more rarely convex) scar. If acne worsens, a rather rare form of acne conglobata develops. As a result of inflammation, nodular and purulent infiltrates form around the follicle, and after their resolution, concave and convex scars remain.
Pimples - treatment
Various methods are used depending on the severity and type of acne. Therapy is usually long-term. With a mild course, it is sufficient to use topical preparations containing retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics (erythromycin and clindamycin), and azelaic acid. In moderate to severe maculopapular acne, oral antibiotics, most often from the tetracycline group, are used. In more severe forms of acne, with the chronic course of the disease and resistance to other forms of treatment, vitamin A derivatives are used, which acts on seborrhea, excessive keratosis of the sebaceous ducts and inflammation. Warning! Due to the effects of damaging the fetus, it is necessary to avoid pregnancy during the entire duration of vitamin A treatment and after its completion.
Deliberate sunbathing of acne-prone skin is not recommended, due to the fact that, under the influence of ultraviolet rays, the existing disorders of epidermis exfoliation intensify, as a result of which the condition of acne-prone skin deteriorates in the fall.