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Intelligence quotient is the result of IQ tests, which shows mental abilities, including reasoning, abstract and logical thinking and learning speed. It is now known that intelligence tests are not the only determinant of success in life and it is very important, inter alia, to emotional intelligence.


  1. Intelligence quotient - what is it and how to calculate it?
  2. IQ - what affects IQ?
  3. Intelligence quotient - IQ test history
  4. Intelligence quotient - how to develop a baby's intelligence?
  5. Intelligence quotient - how to develop the intelligence of a small child?
  6. Intelligence quotient - how to develop intelligence later in life?
  7. Intelligence quotient - impact on success in life

The intelligence quotientof the population has been increasing in the countries of Western civilization since the 20th century, as noted in 1984 by researcher James R. Flynn. This tendency is called the Flynn effect, and its increase is estimated at approximately 3 points for each subsequent 10 years. It is influenced by many factors, including environmental factors and genes - it is worth knowing that there are 13 genes whose inheritance gives nearly 30% of the inherited IQ value. Find out how IQ is measured and also if there are ways to increase your IQ.

Intelligence quotient - what is it and how to calculate it?

Intelligence quotient, popularly known as IQ, is the numerical value of the intelligence test result. IQ relates to intellectual intelligence and represents mental agility. The test results can be approximated as a bell curve for the Gaussian distribution.

To calculate the popular IQ, use specialized tests. Modern intelligence tests take the form of short tasks and are divided into blocks corresponding to skills such as: linguistic, arithmetic, associative, analytical and spatial.

The test result is their resultant and is the intelligence quotient. It is worth knowing that the tests are designed so that the average result is 100 units, which means that an IQ from 90 to 110 is defined as average intelligence, while higher than 110 as above-average intelligence, and lower than 90 as lower-than-average intelligence.

Tocalculations are commonly used, among others Wechsler Intelligence Scale, Stanford Binet Scale, Guilford Intellectual Structure, Psychometric Theories of Intelligence and Group Intelligence Tests.

In Poland, a reliable IQ test can be performed, for example, in psychological offices or in places that allow you to perform tests created by the Mensa association, i.e. a group of extremely intelligent people.

IQ - what affects IQ?

Research in contemporary psychology does not give a clear answer as to what factors influence intellectual abilities. The search for intelligence genes in the 1990s was also of little use. It is known, however, that the IQ depends on the development of the cerebral cortex.

It is these structures that are responsible for the components of intelligence, i.e. logical and abstract thinking, acquiring knowledge and the ability to solve problems. Therefore, if the child's guardians from an early age properly stimulate the mind, a network of connections between neurons will develop, which is also responsible for IQ.

Thus, although there are many scientific studies that confirm that genetic factors have the greatest influence on intelligence, it is worth emphasizing that there are also many others that indicate that environmental factors are of major importance.

This is proved by, inter alia, a study by French scientists Christiane Capron and Michel Duyme, who worked with a group of several dozen children staying up to 4 or 5 years old in neglecting families.

In these groups the mother was usually unemployed and the father was an unskilled laborer, and they did not always remember to provide for the children's basic needs. Ultimately, the children were put up for adoption into we althy, caring, and caring families, which made them ideal candidates for research into how the environment affects IQ.

At the beginning, when the children had not yet been assigned foster families, their IQ was lowered and most often amounted to around 85 points. Then, after 10 years in foster homes, where the children became interested in the world and had good academic results, their IQ was re-examined and it turned out that it increased, in some cases by up to 20 points.

According to scientists, this proves that it was not their genes that mattered here, but that their parents took care of their basic needs, enabled them to attend good schools and spent a lot of time with them.

Intelligence quotient - IQ test history

The first IQ tests were performed around 1905 - fromat that time, they are regularly modernized, which is necessary, because the content of the tasks must be adapted to the prevailing reality, facts, vocabulary, etc. behind whether they are in the lead.

Thanks to the test results, it was possible to support the learning of those students who needed it. In the first IQ tests, the calculation formula proposed by W. Stern was used. He believed that IQ consisted of the quotient of mental age multiplied by age of life multiplied by 100. In practice, this means that a 4-year-old child solving tasks for a 2-year-old would obtain an IQ score of 50 (IQ=2 / 4x100).

Since, according to Stern, intelligence develops in parallel with age, his test results are referred to as developmental IQ, and the tests themselves as developmental scales. Tests of this type popular in Poland include: Terman-Merrill Intelligence Scale, Grace Arthur Intelligence Scale, Psyche Cattell Scale for Investigating the Intelligence of Young Children.

Currently, however, the most commonly used scale is Wechsler, the psychologist who developed a version for adults and children. Thanks to them, you can evaluate, among others cognitive function, knowledge, ability to concentrate and the ability to focus visually-motor.

Intelligence quotient - how to develop a baby's intelligence?

Intelligence quotient can be developed from an early age. It should be emphasized that in early childhood, the care of caregivers is significant, as they ensure that all the basic needs of the charges are met.

During this period, the development of the cerebral cortex, which receives impulses mainly through the senses, is important. Therefore, of great importance for the development of intelligence is, inter alia, hugging, rocking, singing, talking and looking at the baby. For example, contrasting images, which among the popular toys have the greatest impact on the child's intelligence, have a stimulating effect.

  • At this stage, it is worth emphasizing that the children of mothers who suffered from postpartum depression have lower scores on intelligence tests. This is mainly due to the fact that although mums physically take care of their children, they do not express emotions, which prevents their children from seeing the smiles and various expressions that significantly stimulate their brains.

It is also worth emphasizing that, according to scientists from the Medical Research Council, breastfeeding also has a positive effect on IQ. They emphasize, however, that this is a significant factor only in combination with, inter alia, with high socioeconomic status, educationmother and good family conditions.

Researchers from New York University's Steinhardt School also found that a positive effect on IQ is due to diet in pregnant women and newborns. It is imperative that their diet is rich in unsaturated fatty acids that support the formation and development of nerve cells. They also said that there is insufficient evidence to show that iron, B vitamins, zinc, riboflavin, niacin, and thiamin support the development of intelligence.

Intelligence quotient - how to develop the intelligence of a small child?

The next stage in the development of a child's intelligence begins around the age of 3, which is when the child usually goes to kindergarten. During this period, the senses no longer play such a large role, and intelligence develops through curiosity and imagination.

Therefore, children who keep asking questions: What's this? and Why ?, although they often irritate the caregivers, they work on developing their intelligence, which in turn makes their IQs higher. Therefore, at this stage, it is ideal, among others reading books, including interactive ones, in which the parent acts only as the narrator.

The aforementioned US scientists also found that IQ is higher also in children who attend kindergarten. This is due to the fact that they develop language competences more intensively than children staying at home, e.g. under the care of a nanny.

  • It is also worth emphasizing that scientists from New York University's Steinhardt School considered false the belief that children who start learning earlier than their peers are smarter.

Intelligence quotient - how to develop intelligence later in life?

In order to develop intelligence in school children and adolescents, it is worth remembering to give them freedom. Thanks to this, the child's development will be unforced and adjusted to his own pace. It is recommended to encourage the child to e.g. read, exercise memory, as well as manual and motor exercises.

Additionally, the IQ will be the higher if the child becomes more independent, therefore, when the child is responsible for solving specific problems, taking care of duties, controlling them in time and space, it will have a positive effect on development of his brain.

Motivation is an important factor in older children and adolescents. As Angela Lee Duckworth, Patrick D. Quinn, Donald R. Lynam, Rolf Loeber and Magda Stouthamer-Loeber prove, thanks to her for 4 yearsyou can increase or decrease your IQ by up to 20 points.

In addition, it is very important that children and adolescents are offered a variety of stimuli. The proposed activities should be related not only to your interests, but also should relate to various areas. This also applies to adults, who can also develop their intelligence by deciding on activities that, for example, have not been performed before.

This is because research on neuroplasticity shows that researchers still do not know enough about the brain to conclude that its development stops at any particular age. Thus, what today is fashionably referred to as the so-called going beyond the comfort zone, it is also conducive to increasing your IQ.

Intelligence quotient - impact on success in life

Although the IQ result was significant for many years, modern psychology proves that it is not the only determinant of life success, including professional success. Researchers, led by the excellent American psychologist Daniel Goleman, prove that in addition to intellectual intelligence, there is also emotional intelligence, which only in combination with a high IQ can give success.

It cannot be measured with IQ meters. It refers to recognizing one's own and others' feelings, managing emotions and the ability to motivate oneself and the people with whom we have relationships. Currently, psychology also emphasizes the importance of moral intelligence (MQ) and body intelligence (BQ), which together with intellectual and emotional intelligence are important in achieving success.

  • Research by the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh has found that 85% of professional and financial success depends on personality, negotiation, communication skills and leadership. The rest depends on technical knowledge.
About the authorSonia Młodzianowska Journalist, editor, copywriter. He publishes in he alth and parenting magazines and portals. He belongs to the Journalists for He alth Association.

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