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Pharmacological abortion is termination of pregnancy with the use of pharmacological agents. Pharmacological abortion is phased and can be performed at home. What exactly is the pharmacological abortion procedure?

Pharmacological abortion(Englishmedical abortion ) is also called home, because this procedure can be performed by a woman at home. However, in many countries of the world, pharmacological abortions, like other types of termination of pregnancy, are performed under the supervision of a doctor.

When is it possible to have a pharmacological abortion? What means are used for a pharmacological abortion and how is it performed?

Pharmacological abortion: what is it?

Pharmacological abortionis the termination of pregnancy with the use of appropriate pharmacological agents. These agents inhibit the development of the fetal embryo and cause vaginal bleeding, during which it is removed from the woman's body. These drugs are also known colloquially as: abortion pills.

Pharmacological abortion: when?

According to the World He alth Organization (WHO), the termination of pregnancy with pharmacological agents can be performed up to the 24th week of pregnancy. At the same time - in the first trimester of pregnancy (up to the 12th week), the implementation of this procedure does not require medical control.

Pharmacological abortion: substances

Two substances are usually administered (orally and / or vaginally) in a pharmacological abortion procedure. The first one contains an active ingredient called mifepristone, which destroys the trophoblast (the outer layer of the cells in the fetal membrane, or chorion) or damages the embryo. The second drug, given 36 to 48 hours after the first, is a prostaglandin therapist (misoprostol or gemeprost), which causes the uterus to contract and expels the embryo with the lining of the uterus.

Another method of pharmacological abortion is to administer only prostaglandins. This method is less effective and the miscarriage occurs later than in the first method.

Poland : mifipreston is not registered with us as a drug, but you can import it for your own use from abroad; prostaglandins are registered with us as active substances in medicines for other diseases, e.g. joint diseases or gastrointestinal ulcers (e.g.stomach), but not as a miscarriage.

Pharmacological abortion: course

Pharmacological abortion is different for every woman. In the prostaglandin-only procedure, bleeding may be triggered by the first dose of the substance, but the embryo may be expelled even after 2 days.

In the two-component procedure, taking 1 tablet of mifepristone usually produces no symptoms. Some women may experience slight spotting or a slight feeling of sickness. Miscarriage then occurs rarely, although it can happen.

Bleeding starts after the first or second dose of prostaglandins. This is also when the actual miscarriage occurs. This process is accompanied by symptoms such as:

  • chills
  • diarrhea
  • uterine contractions

Bleeding after medical abortion continues for 1 to 2 weeks. The duration of bleeding depends, inter alia, on the length of pregnancy, its placement, and the individual he alth characteristics of a woman.

Along with the blood, pieces of the uterine epithelium similar to those excreted during menstruation are also removed from the body. The change in color of discharge from intense red to more and more brown to colorless mucus is a symptom of the healing process of the uterus.

Bleeding is accompanied by pain of varying severity - from what a woman usually experiences during menstruation to pain in labor. Pain is an individual matter. Some ladies then do their usual chores or feel a surge of strength, while others suffer not being able to move.

Pain decreases with administration of painkillers, sometimes with other emergency measures (e.g. exercise or hot compresses), and with time and less bleeding.

Pharmacological abortion: symptoms after the abortion

The main symptom after this type of abortion is bleeding, which not only accompanies the miscarriage itself, but also persists after it. Over time, the bleeding turns into spotting, which may last for several or several days. Menstruation in a normal, steady cycle usually returns about 4-5 weeks after the procedure is performed.

Bleeding increases the risk of intimate infections, so at this time, you should especially take care of proper hygiene, e.g. do not use tampons, but pads, take a shower instead of a bath, refrain from vaginal irrigation and sexual intercourse - unless, that with the use of a condom.

Other symptoms after the pharmacological abortion procedure are:

  • abdominal pain - similar to menstrual cramps, located in the lower abdomen, between the ovaries, sometimes with greater intensity on one side, lasts up to several daysafter an abortion
  • uterine contractions
  • exhaustion
  • sore breasts, sometimes with leaking secretions - usually 1-2 weeks after the abortion
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • headaches
  • dizziness
  • diarrhea
  • elevated temperature

Pharmacological abortion: when to see a doctor?

Performing a pharmacological abortion procedure requires or does not require a doctor's control. It depends on the abortion legislation in the country.

In many countries, the law requires that a woman who wants to have a pharmacological abortion undergoes 2 medical visits. During the first one, the doctor determines the stage of pregnancy, makes sure that it is not an ectopic pregnancy and that the patient has no diseases that are a contraindication to a pharmacological abortion. Then the doctor gives the patient 1 dose of the substance. The woman receives the second dose at home and applies it to herself 1-2 days after the first dose.

In Poland, medical control before or after a pharmacological abortion is not necessary. It is up to the woman to decide whether to have a medical examination or an ultrasound scan. However, there are situations when medical intervention is necessary. It is usually caused by inflammation in the uterus.

You need to see a doctor quickly, when after a few days of taking the substance, the pain in the lower abdomen increases instead of decreasing, the temperature persists, and vaginal discharge has a putrid smell. Then it is necessary to curettage the uterus, or to give an additional dose of prostaglandins, because these symptoms mean that not all the tissues have detached from it.

Pharmacological abortion: contraindications

Medical contraindications for the use of abortifacient substances by a woman are:

  • genetic porphyria
  • adrenal insufficiency
  • liver failure
  • ectopic pregnancy - suspected or confirmed
  • strong allergic reaction to substances - in women who have already performed a pharmacological abortion.

Pharmacological abortion: effectiveness

Pharmacological abortion is effective in approx. 95%. procedures. 3 out of 100 women may have a partial or no partial miscarriage, and then require surgical intervention.

The American data shows that after a pharmacological abortion, 39 percent of women were diagnosed with severe bleeding from the genital tract, infections in approx. 11% and several cases of fatal infection with the bacteriumClostridium sordellii- gas gangrene.

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