- Ewing's sarcoma (tumor) - causes
- Ewing's sarcoma (tumor) - symptoms
- Ewing's sarcoma (tumor) - research
- Ewing's sarcoma (tumor) - treatment
- Ewing's sarcoma (tumor) - prognosis
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Ewing's sarcoma (tumor) is a malignant bone tumor that most often affects children. The first symptoms of Ewing's sarcoma are bone pain, which are sometimes associated with an accidental injury, and thus - underestimated. This has consequences, because the later Ewing's tumor is diagnosed, the worse the prognosis. What are the causes and other symptoms of Ewing's Sarcoma? What is the treatment?
Ewing's sarcoma (tumor)(incorrectly referred to asbone cancer ), belongs to the groupbone sarcomas, which mainly occurs in children and adolescents. Ewing's sarcoma accounts for 1-3 percent. all cancers in children and is the second most common bone cancer in the youngest (after osteosarcoma). Ewing's sarcoma is more common in boys than in girls. The peak incidence is found in the age range of 10-14 years for boys and 5-9 years for girls.
Ewing's sarcoma belongs to the Ewing sarcoma (ESFT) neoplasms, which also include such neoplasms as: extraosseous Ewing sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal neoplasm (PNET), neuroepithelioma, Askin's tumor.
Ewing's sarcoma (tumor) - causes
The causes of Ewing's sarcoma are unknown. The risk factors for development include: ionizing radiation. Family presence is also important. It is suspected that an increase in the morbidity of young people may indicate a relationship between the rapid growth process and the development of cancer.
Ewing's sarcoma (tumor) - symptoms
Ewing's sarcoma shows no symptoms for a long time. Only with time do they appear:
- bone pain - Most patients experience dull, recurring pain that becomes sharp and continuous over time. Ewing's sarcoma is most often located in long bones (in most cases in the femur), then in flat bones and soft tissues, and then in the spine
Parents' anxiety should arouse pain complaints of the motor system in the child, which are not directly related to the injury.
- restriction of mobility in the affected bone, resulting from acute and continuous pain
- sometimes swelling over the bone affected by the tumor
- pathological bone fracture resulting from destructionthrough a bone tumor
Depending on which bone the cancer has occupied, other symptoms may also appear. For example, Ewing's sarcoma in the spine can cause paraesthesia followed by decreased sensation of muscle strength. These symptoms are the result of the tumor pressing on the nerves.
About 40 percent cases there is the so-called inflammatory mask (symptoms of inflammation, increased body temperature), making proper diagnosis difficult.
Ewing's sarcoma (tumor) - research
Final diagnosis is made on the basis of imaging, preferably magnetic resonance, because it is the most precise. MRI enables accurate determination of tumor growth in surrounding tissues and assessment of the ratio of the tumor mass to nerves and blood vessels.
Ewing's sarcoma grows rapidly and often causes distant metastases - usually to the lungs.
In turn, performing a computed tomography of the chest (especially the so-called spiral) enables the detection of metastatic foci to the lungs, invisible in the X-ray examination.
Additional tests may also be needed, such as morphology, ESR, CRP. Bone marrow collection for histological examination can be considered, but only in about 15% of patients. of sick people, the bone marrow contains cancer cells.
It is worth knowing that it is very difficult to diagnose Ewing's sarcoma, which is located within the spine. It can be mistaken for discopathy, scoliosis, neurodegenerative disease, and even kidney stones and collagenosis.Where to go for help
People who suffer from sarcomas and their families can look for support at the Sarcoma Aid Association "SARCOMA": www.sarcoma.pl.
Ewing's sarcoma (tumor) - treatment
Ewing's sarcoma treatment consists of 3 stages:
- 1st stage - initial chemotherapy. Its purpose is to reduce the tumor and destroy micrometastases
- II stage - surgical treatment or radiotherapy. In addition to completing the initial chemotherapy, surgical removal of the tumor is performed. It is possible when Ewing's sarcoma is located in the bone, the removal of which will not cause disability. If the tumor cannot be removed by surgery or if it cannot be completely removed during surgery, radiation therapy is included in the treatment to destroy the primary sarcoma
- III stage - complementary chemotherapy. It is turned on after surgery or after radiotherapy
Ewing's sarcoma (tumor) - prognosis
Patients with the best prognosis have less than a month from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis. However, the period from the onsetThe first symptoms to be diagnosed are usually between 3 and 6 months.
Currently, in the group of patients with Ewing's sarcoma, about 45 percent are cured. cases with a localized process. In turn, all patients with metastases usually die within 36 months.Worth knowing
Ewing's sarcoma (tumor) is a malignant tumor of bone, but not bone cancer
Sarcomas is a type of malignant tumor that is formed from muscle, fat, and cartilage tissue. Cancers, on the other hand, come from epithelial tissue - skin, lungs, breasts, pancreas, liver and other organs. The terms "bone cancer" are therefore incorrect because there is no epithelial tissue in the bones.
1. Trybek E.,Diagnostic difficulties of Ewing's sarcoma in children - case report , "Problems of Family Medicine" 2009, no. 1
2. Association for Help for Sarcoma Patients "SARCOMA". A compendium of knowledge about sarcomas and their early detection.