- Adnexitis - how does infection get?
- Adnexitis - symptoms
- Adnexitis - treatment
- Chronic adnexitis
- Adnexitis - prevention rules
- Adnexitis - complications
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Inflammation of the appendages, or inflammation of the pelvic organs - is a group of inflammatory diseases of the ovaries and fallopian tubes, as well as endometritis, tubo-ovarian abscess and pelvic peritonitis. Mainly sexually active women between the ages of 15 and 30 suffer from disease. What are the causes and symptoms of pelvic inflammation? How is adnexitis treated?
Adnexitis (pelvic inflammatory disease - PID)is a group of inflammatory diseases.ovarian inflammationandsalpingitisare not distinguished as separate disease entities because inflammation easily spreads from one organ to another (they are located close to each other) and supplied by virtually the same vessels with blood and lymph). For this reason, it is always referred to as adnexitis, although it is not a precise term.
Adnexitis - how does infection get?
The cause of the disease is infection with anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, such as staphylococci, streptococci, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. They travel to the appendages in two ways: ascending and descending.
The ascending road is 90 percent. cases. The microbes enter the appendages through the vagina and uterus. Infection occurs when the cervical canal is obstructed.
This is the case:
- during menstruation
- after childbirth
- after miscarriage
- after curettage of the uterus
- after various gynecological procedures
- right after inserting the intrauterine device
The descending road is 10 percent. cases. Bacteria, along with blood or lymph, reach the appendages from inflammatory foci existing in the body, e.g. in the teeth, tonsils, appendix.
Adnexitis - symptoms
Symptoms of acute adnexitis appear several days to about a week after infection - it depends on the pathogen.
A characteristic symptom of the disease is sudden cramping pain on both sides of the lower abdomen and increasing pain during intercourse. Sometimes it radiates to the groin and thighs. It is accompanied by weakness, fever or low-grade fever.
They also appear sometimesnausea, vomiting (irritation of the peritoneum), diarrhea which may mislead the woman. Such symptoms, combined with abdominal pain, are associated more with the digestive system than with the reproductive system.
But the fact that this is what it is about is decided by a gynecological examination. It is very unpleasant, because even lightly touching the cervix, let alone moving it sideways, causes enormous pain. In general, this examination is sufficient for the gynecologist to make a diagnosis.
Adnexitis - treatment
Adnexitis is treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics that fight many types of bacteria. It is also possible to conduct combination therapy by administering several medications.
At the same time, oral and vaginal preparations are used. Treatment with them usually takes 7-10 days.
Additionally, you are taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with an analgesic effect (e.g. with ibuprofen, paracetamol).
Sometimes, due to severe inflammation and severe ailments, medications (antibiotics and painkillers) must be administered intravenously. In such a situation, hospitalization is necessary.
You should scrupulously follow the gynecologist's recommendations, which not only apply to taking medications, but also to create good conditions for the body to overcome the infection. So listen to him when he advises you to lie in bed under a warm duvet for a few days, avoid physical exertion, refrain from sexual intercourse until the next menstruation, or at least until the end of the treatment.
After the treatment is over, be sure to go to the gynecologist for a checkup to assess whether the treatment was successful and you can return to your daily activities.
It happens that acute adnexitis will not be completely cured because, for example, you have interrupted the treatment, incorrectly selected medications or you have resumed sexual intercourse too early. Then the acute form of the disease turns into a chronic form, which can be signaled by pain during intercourse and menstrual disorders.
The inflammation in the appendages is still smoldering and when the immunity is lowered (e.g. as a result of a cold or the feet getting wet), the disease returns in an acute form. The cervical swab is then cultured to check which microbes are causing the infection and to administer medications to combat them.
If testing shows that gonorrhea or chlamydia are causing the inflammation, your partner must be treated as it may be a source of infection. However, the scenario of a recurrence of adnexitis is sometimes different.
After having survived this infection, you canbecome susceptible to it. Then, to avoid her return, follow the rules of prevention.
Adnexitis - prevention rules
- If you change partners frequently, make them use a condom to minimize the risk of contamination.
- Make sure to make a postpartum follow-up visit so that your doctor can assess whether your cervix has properly closed.
- After a miscarriage, curettage of the uterus and other gynecological procedures for 4 weeks, remain sexually abstinent, do not go to the swimming pool, take a shower instead of a bathtub to minimize the risk of infection.
- Avoid having sex during your period.
- Try to maintain a he althy vaginal flora. This is your protection of intimate places against pathogenic microorganisms.
- Do not underestimate any inflammation in your body.
- If you are prone to inflammation of the appendages, consider using hormonal contraception. It not only inhibits ovulation, but also thickens the cervical mucus, which becomes an insurmountable barrier for sperm and germs.
Adnexitis - complications
It is very important to avoid complications from pelvic inflammatory disease as they can lead to ectopic pregnancy and even infertility.
If you see your doctor early and you scrupulously follow the recommended treatment, the risk of such complications of adnexitis will be low.
The fallopian tubes are most often affected by inflammation. They can become obstructed as a result of adhesions or hydrocarbons (they fill with fluid), damage to the cilia that are involved in the transport of the egg and embryo towards the uterus.
If these changes affect both fallopian tubes, and attempts to unblock them have failed, only in vitro fertilization gives a chance for motherhood.
It is also worth remembering that due to obstruction of the fallopian tube, an ectopic pregnancy sometimes develops, which poses a threat to the he alth and life of a woman.
Inflammation can also leave a mark on the ovary, for example in the form of a purulent cyst. Such a cyst also reduces the chances of motherhood, as it must be removed along with a fragment of this organ. And then it ceases to fulfill its basic function (to produce eggs) or it is limited.