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The cerebrospinal meninges protect the brain from mechanical injuries. Without them, the most important part of the central nervous system, which is responsible for heart rate and body temperature regulation, would be exposed to irreversible changes, and hence - death. Any abnormalities in the meninges are therefore a huge threat to human he alth and life. What are the types of meninges, how are they built, and what diseases do they suffer from?
The cerebrospinal meningesprotect the brain and spinal cord. Their main function is to prevent mechanical injuries. In combination with the cerebrospinal fluid, they absorb all shocks. They are made of compact connective tissue (closely adjacent fibers). There are three meninges.
The dura mater is the thickest of the meninges, the furthest membrane from the brain and resistant to damage. It is made of two laminae: external and internal. They are separated in several places.
The dura mater has folds made up of the lamina. They are divided into two types. The sagittal course includes the sickle of the brain that separates the hemispheres from each other, and the sickle of the cerebellum that extends the sickle of the brain from the occipital foramen to the cerebellar tent.
In the horizontal course there is the cerebellar tent, which is the separation of the cerebral hemispheres from those of the cerebellum; the diaphragm of the saddle, in turn, separates the pituitary gland from the bottom of the skull. The dura mater is strongly innervated and highly vascularized.
One of the dura mater diseases is idiopathic dural overgrowth. This very rare condition causes severe, recurring headaches and damages the cranial nerves. An increased incidence has been reported in the course of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Hashimoto's disease, systemic lupus and sarcoidosis.
It can also arise from infectious diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, and inflammation in general. People who suffer from HIV infection, Lyme disease, syphilis or tuberculosis are at risk.
Dural overgrowth is sometimes also caused by neoplastic diseases in this area.
Another disease of this tire is Foixa-Alajouanine disease. In its course, a fistula is formed, whichconnects an artery with a vein. As a result, the network of capillaries that nourish the dura mater at the site of the spinal cord is bypassed.
This causes severe walking difficulties, paraesthesia (loss of sensation, in this case from foot to waist, rarely affecting the upper limbs), loss of control over urine and faeces, and sexual disturbances. Surgical treatment can partially reverse these conditions.
Spider tire (cobweb)
Spider mite, also known as arachnoid, is located between the dura mater with which it is attached and the soft dura, from which it is separated by the cerebrospinal fluid. Unlike the dura mater, the arachnoid is very delicate, thin and prone to damage, and is vascular and innervated.
The name of this cerebrospinal dura comes from the fact that it is connected to the plexus by arachnoid trabeculae, resembling a spider's web.
One of the diseases is sticky arachnoiditis, which is formed as a result of infection and inflammation. It can occur after treatment (iatrogenic diseases), surgical and diagnostic procedures, as a complication of tuberculous meningitis, and after mechanical injuries. The most common symptoms are:
- burning pain in the spine area,
- tingling and numbness in the limbs,
- hearing impairment
- and other neurological symptoms.
Treatment of arachnoiditis involves symptomatic treatment - there is no drug that would eliminate the disease. Even invasive surgical intervention is a fragile solution. Cysts that develop in children and adolescents before the age of twenty are another arachnoid disease.
They are filled with fluid and can be both primary (the child is born with the defect) and secondary, which are formed as a result of, for example, an injury. They cause a number of very serious neurological symptoms (including convulsions, paresis, double vision). Treatment consists of surgical removal of the cyst.
The dura mater is the dura mater closest to the brain with which it is fused, as well as to the spinal cord. Closely adheres to the brain and the membrane of the glial cells. It also has contact with the interbrain, cerebellum and medulla.
In the neck area, the soft dura is additionally reinforced with bands of connective tissue. It creates a kind of cover that allows the soft brain to keep the correct shape. The soft dura is highly vascularized and innervated, but mechanical stimuli, such as cutting with a scalpel, do not cause pain.
This is the soft tire andarachnoid disease affects meningitis, which can be caused by infection with ECHO viruses, influenza A and B viruses, but also with measles and chicken pox. Inflammation is also caused by bacteria, protozoa, and parasites, and it also occurs as a complication of treatment.
- high fever,
- meningeal symptoms (stiff neck, symptoms: Kering, Brudziński, Herman, photophobia, cheek symptom and others)
- and neurological symptoms such as seizures, speech paralysis and optic nerve swelling.
Treatment depends on the pathogen causing the meningitis. In the case of bacteria, antibiotic therapy is used, in the case of fungal inflammation - antifungal drugs.
Antiviral treatment is symptomatic, and in very poorly prognostic cases, interferon, among others, is introduced. It is a serious disease that can be prevented or mitigated by prophylaxis in the form of vaccines.
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