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Ovarian follicular cyst, which is an example of a functional cyst, is associated with hormonal disorders. In addition, the list of predictors includes the early age of the first menstruation, stress, irregular cycles and an abundance of adipose tissue.

Ovarian follicular cystmost often occupies the inside of the ovary, rarely grows outside, forming an exophytic growth. Cysts can appear as a single encapsulated structure or form clusters. If the cysts appear on both sides and cover almost the entire surface of the ovary, the proper functioning of the ovaries is disturbed, which in turn affects female fertility.

Symptoms of ovarian follicular cyst

Follicular cysts are clinically silent in most cases. Detected accidentally during a follow-up ultrasound examination. The growth of the lesion puts pressure on adjacent structures, which may then result in symptoms. The characteristic symptoms of a follicular cyst are:

  • pain in the lower abdomen described by the patients as a feeling of pulling in the lower abdomen
  • pain in the ovarian projection in which the pathological lesion is located
  • in the case of close proximity to the bladder, women report dysuria, i.e. pain during micturition, painful pressure on the bladder
  • abdominal discomfort - flatulence
  • cyst twist or rupture causes peritoneal symptoms

It happens that the presence of a hemorrhagic cyst is associated with the formation of complications. The multitude of cysts, as well as a large amount of blood accumulated in the lesions, means a high probability of massive bleeding with simultaneous rupture of the cyst. The haemorrhage then gives general symptoms that are indications of hypovolemic shock: tachycardia, pale skin, excessive sweating, weakness, difficult contact with the patient. Significant blood loss is an indication for a transfusion. Other complications include twisting of the cyst stalk or, very rarely, an ovarian abscess.

Diagnostics of the ovarian follicular cyst

The diagnosis of an ovarian follicular cyst is mostly accidental when undergoing ultrasound for another reason. During thisexamination, the doctor assesses the size of the cyst, the possible multitude of changes, location and content. Ultrasound is not only an excellent diagnostic tool, but is also often used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment.

Treatment of ovarian follicular cyst

Due to frequent hormonal disorders that cause cysts, the treatment consists in balancing the level of hormones, which can be easily achieved by using contraceptive pills. These types of preparations not only reduce the already detected changes, but also effectively protect against the formation of new ones. The large size of the cyst and the lack of treatment effects oblige us to proceed with surgery. Most often, a suspicious lesion is removed during laparoscopy. In some cases, it is unrealistic to spare ovarian tissue.

Worth knowing

Ovarian cyst is one of the most common changes in women of childbearing age. Macroscopically, it is an encysted structure filled with liquid content. The diagnosis is usually preceded by ultrasound examination with a transvaginal probe. Despite many fears, cysts are benign changes and should not be of concern to the patient. They require observation, and the more surgical procedure remains an individual matter. The peak of disease incidence falls on reproductive age, but it happens that older women suffer from the disease. The lesion is mild, although, especially at a later age of onset, it may be the starting point for neoplastic development. It is usually ovarian cancer. So far, the cause has not been identified. Cysts are most often associated with an imbalance in the body's hormonal balance. Then, a functional ovarian cyst is formed, an example of which is an ovarian follicular cyst.

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