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Anxiety disorders or neuroses are the most common mental disorders. The accompanying ailments worsen the quality of life, so they need to be recognized and treated in time. Check what the causes of neurosis may be, how is the diagnosis made and what is the treatment of anxiety disorders.

The wordneurosisis more and more often replaced with the termanxiety disorders . In Poland, 20-25 percent suffer from them. people. Ladies are sick three times more often than men. Scientists have shown that the anxiety accompanying neurosis is not a purely psychological concept, but also reflects certain disorders of the brain's functions. As a result of further research, it turned out that the changes in the brain in patients with neurosis are similar to those characterizing depression. The main feature that differentiates both diseases is their intensity and course.

Symptoms of neurosis. Why is it so difficult to recognize anxiety?

The basic symptom of neurosis is anxiety accompanied by physical ailments. But many people, when they experience anxiety, are unaware of it and look for the causes of discomfort in some disease, e.g. heart, stomach, throat. They report to the doctor, for example, with headaches, backaches or persistent diarrhea, not to mention any mental problems. The doctor undertakes routine treatment which does not take into account the real cause of the trouble. Effect? The symptoms intensify, confirming the patients and the doctor in the belief that the sources of malaise should be sought in a somatic disease. This is a vicious circle. Why is it so hard to recognize anxiety? Some oppose it with a feeling of fear. Fear is a reaction to a specific stimulus, e.g. we are afraid of a mad dog or an exam. Anxiety is a similar emotional state, with the only difference that the person who experiences it is usually not able to give the exact cause of it. But there is no clear-cut definition of fear because it comes in various forms.

Symptoms of neurosis

Anxiety disorders are manifested in the sphere of perceiving, experiencing, thinking and behavior. The patient has problems with concentration, memory, is lethargic, irritable, emotionally unstable, unable to fall asleep, wakes up at night. Under the influence of anxiety, there may be paresis, numbness of the arm or leg, nervous tic, sometimes there is a sudden loss of voice (hence the saying that he is speechless due to fear) or deafness. LossHearing does not mean ear disease, and the loss of voice is related to a disease of the throat, but is only associated with disorders in the peripheral nervous system (dissociative disorders). This group also includes ailments caused by the stimulation of the autonomic (vegetative) nervous system that manages the work of individual organs and systems - various signals from the gastrointestinal tract, such as abdominal pain, liver pain, diarrhea and constipation, pressure on the bladder, palpitations, chest pain heart attack, blood pressure problems, breathing problems, and more. Some of these behaviors are the body's natural defense response in a stressful situation. But when nothing happens and you panic, it is a sign of neurosis. Where does this come from?

According to an expertMichał Skalski, MD, PhD, psychiatrist

Don't let fear destroy your life

Anxiety disorders have become the bane of civilization. More and more young people, who cannot meet the requirements of the times, are struggling with them. They graduated from a few universities and are not fit for any job. Because each of them makes them fear more. Why? Today, self-presentation counts at every step, so people are afraid of how they will be received. The pressure is so great that many people cannot cope with it. And a man who is still tense fares worse and feels discomfort. That is why, under any pretext, she quits her job and has peace for some time. I have a lot of well-educated patients who, due to anxiety disorders, have not realized themselves socially, professionally, and have not made a private life for themselves. Because it's difficult to arrange a date when you are afraid that no one will like you. That is why I argue that it is worth helping yourself in time, going to a psychologist or to a psychiatrist right away. Although anxiety disorders are not serious, they worsen the quality of life, and sometimes accompany or lead to other mental disorders, such as depression, they should be treated.

Causes of neurosis: guilty genes and civilization

There is more and more talk of a genetic predisposition to neurosis, but the environmental factor is also important. The constant rush, overload of duties, increasing rivalry, the pursuit of success, and the dissonance between the possibilities and the aspirations mean that in recent times an increase in the occurrence of anxiety disorders has been observed. Among the factors contributing to neurosis are also the reduction of the living space, noise, and the crisis of family ties. People with a weak mental structure, congenital or acquired, with egocentric tendencies, self-centered, deeply convinced that their problems and sufferings are incomparable to the condition are more susceptible to the disease.other. An egocentric person is oriented towards the world, accustomed to taking rather than giving, it seems to him that the world revolves around him.

Neurosis or somatic disease?

Most people with neurosis do not seek specialist help, but also a large part, despite anxiety disorders, somehow cope with everyday life. However, if the disease interferes with social functioning, an appointment with a psychiatrist is necessary. The diagnosis of neurotic symptoms is usually not difficult for a specialist. The anxiety and psychological tension that emanate from the patient, as well as typical complaints allow us to immediately define a given person as "neurotic". But before making a diagnosis, you still need to verify the possibility of a somatic disease. For this purpose, the psychiatrist may refer a consultation to another specialist. If the anxiety is accompanied by chest pain, you need to see a cardiologist and get an EKG and echocardiogram to make sure that the pain is only due to an anxiety disorder. When the stomach hurts, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract should be eliminated. If everything is normal - the disorders are functional, with an anxiety background, i.e. the organ is properly built and performs its functions properly. It happens, however, that anxiety attacks accompany a disease, e.g. an overactive thyroid gland. Then it is necessary to treat the thyroid gland and anxiety therapy at the same time.

It takes time to heal a neurosis

The method of treatment depends on the background and the severity of the disease. Psychotherapy helps in mild anxiety attacks. The most popular and most frequently used forms of psychotherapy are cognitive-behavioral and interpersonal (individual or group) therapy. They teach positive thinking and coping with everyday situations. However, sometimes you have to change jobs, get out of a toxic relationship to deal with anxiety. When anxiety disorders are genetic or take the form of acute anxiety attacks, medications are more effective. Some are given on an ad hoc basis, others need to be taken longer. Always do this as directed and under medical supervision, as some anti-anxiety medications can become addictive. Both forms of therapy are often used, e.g. in the case of a phobia, drugs are administered and, thanks to behavioral therapy, the patient becomes accustomed to a fearful situation. You have to wait for the effects, because treating anxiety disorders takes time, but it is worth going through the entire therapy, because it significantly improves the quality of life.

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