- Muscle hypertrophy - what is it?
- How do you exercise to induce muscle hypertrophy?
- What is hypertrophic training?
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Muscular hypertrophy is one of the effects of exercise and is the goal most bodybuilders train for. This phenomenon is a slow increase in the volume of the muscles that build a sports body shape. For muscle hypertrophy to occur, exercisers should remember the basic principles of hypertrophic training.
Muscular hypertrophyis a side effect of any strength training. The intensity of this process, however, may differ depending on the chosen training method - the number of repetitions of a given exercise, duration of breaks, and selected weight. To get the best results, train according to the principles ofhypertrophic training- this is a collection of tips on how to exercise, with what load and how often to achieve rapid muscle growth.
See whatmuscle hypertrophyand what ishypertrophic training .
Muscle hypertrophy - what is it?
Hypertrophy means growth, growth. The one concerning muscles is defined by the phenomenonincreasing the volume of muscle fibers . Hypertrophy should not be confused with hyperplasia, which is an increase in the number of muscle fibers.
There are two types of muscle hypertrophy:
- myofibrillar- consists in the growth of muscle fibers;
- sarcoplasmic- it is characterized by an increase in the volume of glycogen in the muscles, which contributes in part to the phenomenon known as the muscle pump.
Moreover, hypertrophy is divided intostructural(non-functional) andfunctional . In the case of the former, the effect of training is only an increase in muscle endurance, but not strength. In the case of functional muscle hypertrophy, the volume of muscle tissue increases, as well as an increase in their strength.
How do you exercise to induce muscle hypertrophy?
Muscular hypertrophy is a slow process that requires the implementation of many principles. For muscles to grow, they need to be constantly stimulated. Effective muscle stimulation depends not only on exercise, but also on diet, so if you want to achieve satisfactory results, you should act comprehensively.
These are the most important principles of muscle hypertrophy.
1. Regular workouts
Thisthe basis of any physical exercise, if we want a quick and good effect. In the case of strength training, regularity is especially important because it allows you to constantly stimulate the muscles to grow. If the workouts were irregular or too infrequent, the muscle cells would disappear quickly. Just two days of rest is enough for the process of atrophy, i.e. muscle degradation, to begin to occur. The best recommendation is to exercise each muscle group every 2 days.
2. Training with a weight of 75% CM
In order for hypertrophy to occur, it is necessary to stimulate first of all fast twitch fibers (type II). They are of decisive importance in strength sports because they respond better to short and more intense exertion, e.g. weightlifting. In contrast, slow twitch fibers (type I) grow in response to sustained, low to moderate intensity exercise (e.g., long distance running). Although they contribute as much to muscle hypertrophy as strength training, slow twitch fibers should not be neglected, as research has shown that they also contribute to the overall increase in muscle volume.
It is estimated that the optimal level of muscle hypertrophy can be obtained by exercising with a load of about 75% CM. In addition, 2-3 times a week, it is worth introducing cardio training based on a lower load - e.g. spinning or running.
3. Short breaks between sets
In order for the training aimed at muscle hypertrophy to be effective, the intervals between exercises (series) should not be longer than 40 seconds (but only when we do not carry the maximum weight). Too long rest has a lazy effect on the muscles, and the training intensity simply drops. Minute and longer breaks make the muscles relax and lose their heat. So their work will no longer be 100% efficient. Short breaks, on the other hand, work well for the metabolism, resulting in faster fat burning.
4. Intense concentric and eccentric phases
In the exercises, you should not let go of any movement. Exerciseers tend to loosen the eccentric (apart) movement. Meanwhile, this movement is as important as the concentric movement (towards itself). Muscle stimulation should be constant, so you should concentrate and apply the same to every movement. This will make muscle hypertrophy more effective.
5. Optimal supply of protein
A proper diet is essential to enhance or accelerate the effect of muscle hypertrophy. Every athlete knows that one of the building blocks of the musclethere is protein. This ingredient cannot be missing from the diet of the exerciser. It is best to take protein one hour before and after training to make up for the deficiencies. The amount of this building material is also important, because it depends on whether the protein will not break down in the muscles, or whether it will cover the muscle needs after exercise.
What is hypertrophic training?
The way to induce muscle hypertrophy is to use hypertrophic training with the goal of rapid muscle growth. Ideally, the training plan should include three workouts a week, and the breaks between workouts should not be longer than two days. Such a short time to rest is due to the fact that the muscles grow after training for about 48 hours. After this time, nothing is physically happening to them (they may eventually undergo catabolic processes if the body does not receive an appropriate portion of the building material). In order for the muscles to grow all the time, you need to maintain their anabolism by training again after 2 days.
In order for hypertrophic training to bring the expected results, it should be performed in accordance with the above-mentioned principles. A few more recommendations should be added to them.
1. Measure circuits
The essence of hypertrophic training is the perceived progress from training to training. The progress will be the increase in muscle strength, as well as the physical change in their volume. Therefore, measure your body circumference regularly - if you are seeing any gains, it means that the training plan is right.
2. Don't exercise until you drop
It should also be remembered that when performing the exercises, you must not allow a situation when you are not able to perform one more repetition. It can even cause nerve damage and a loss of muscle strength.
3. Exercise with heavy weights
Weight is important in hypertrophic training - as previously mentioned, it should be around 75% of CM. It should also be remembered that the muscles quickly get used to the loads placed on them, so you need to constantly increase the weight of the loads. The best option is to add 5% of the weight to each subsequent workout.This will be useful to you
The hypertrophic training plan should be written by a professional who will take into account our individual predispositions and previous experience. Due to the high risk of injury, the help of a personal trainer is of great importance.
4. Train every 2 days
Hypertrophic training should take place 3 times a week (with a 48-hour break) and cover all muscle groups.
The entire training cycle should last 8 weeks, including 4the so-called microcycle cycles of 2 weeks duration. In the first one, you perform 15 repetitions of each exercise, in the second cycle - 10 repetitions, and in the third - 5 repetitions. There is also the last microcycle, which consists in lifting maximum weights in 5 repetitions. The first two should be done by yourself and the rest with the help of your partner. It is important to increase the weight of weights in the next microcycles.
5. Exercise the whole body
Hypertrophic training consists mainly of strength exercises such as: rowing, deadlift, bench press, squats, lunges, push-ups, pull-ups. Exercises should be arranged in such a way that during one training session all muscles should be exercised.
6. Remember to warm up
At the end, it is worth realizing that before starting the training, you must not forget about warming up. It does not have to be long (it can last 5 minutes), but it is important that it fulfills its role - it prepares and warms up the muscles before greater effort. An example of a warm-up could be a treadmill, exercise bike, or other cardio exercise.