- What does oral papilloma look like
- Brodawczaki is not everything
- What causes oral papillomas?
- Papillomas of the oral mucosa: treatment
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Oral mucosa papilloma is a benign lesion, mainly caused by types 6 and 11 human papillomavirus (HPV, human papillomavirus). How does HPV infection occur in the oral cavity? What are the symptoms of an oral mucosa papilloma?
What does oral papilloma look like
Papillomas of the oral mucosaare benign lesions. They take the appearance of small white or pale pink lumps on the surface of the mucosa. They usually appear as single changes, but it is not a rule (cases of their multiple occurrence have been described)
As papulo-nodular formations, they grow above the level of a he althy mucosa. They can take the form of small raised bumps or cauliflower-shaped outgrowths. The surface of the papilloma is usually folded, notched, but may be smooth or have numerous finger-like protrusions.
Papillomas are in most cases connected with the mucosa by a narrow, well-defined peduncle. The consistency of the eruptions varies, and the intraoral papillomas are described as soft lesions. Efflorescence grows slowly, usually less than 1 cm in diameter.
The incidence of papillomas in men and women is similar. They can occur at any age, with a peak incidence around the age of 35.
The presence of oral papillomas is usually not associated with other symptoms, such as pain, burning, or taste disturbances. Eruptions can be located on the entire surface of the mucosa, most often they are found on the tongue, palate, uvula and on the lip mucosa.
Brodawczaki is not everything
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is also responsible for the formation of other lesions on the oral mucosa. These diseases include:
- Focal epithelial hyperplasia(also known as Heck's disease or focal epithelial hyperplasia), is mainly endemic in some regions of the world, e.g. in the indigenous people of Latin America. The changes appearing on the mucous membranes take the appearance of lenticular or flat nodules. Smooth, soft-textured bumps often come in greater numbers. Responsible for changes of this typethere are types 13 and 32 of the HPV virus. Eruptions usually disappear on their own with time.
- Genital warts- lesions are most often located on the skin, but there are cases on the oral mucosa (observed much less frequently than papillomas). They take the form of lumps with finger-like protrusions or cauliflower-shaped growths of the mucosa. They occur singly or in groups, forming larger clusters. Like papillomas, they are associated with the presence of HPV types 6 and 11.
- Common warts(verrucae vulgares) - these lesions are most often located on the skin, and cases of their occurrence on the oral mucosa have also been reported. They take the form of small (up to 1 cm in diameter) light pink or whitish lumps with an uneven surface. They do not give any symptoms of pain or other unpleasant sensations for the patient.
All these changes seen with the naked eye are very similar to each other, only microscopic examination of the cut tissue decides which type of exanthema was present in the patient.
What causes oral papillomas?
Papillomas ( papilloma ) are mucosal changes associated with epithelial hyperplasia. The cause of this growth is infection with the HPV virus, known as the human papillomavirus. The HPV virus belongs to the papillomavirus family, i.e. DNA viruses responsible for the formation of many both benign and malignant lesions (including cervical cancer, possibly also oropharyngeal cancer). The virus is transmitted through contact with infected, diseased epidermis, also through sexual contact. Over 100 types of HPV have been described, and due to the oncological risk associated with infection, they can be divided into two groups:
- viruses with low oncogenic potential,
- highly oncogenic viruses.
The types of HPV 6 and 11 are mainly responsible for the formation of papillomas in the oral cavity. An estimated half of the population is infected with HPV during their lifetime, some of these people often do not experience symptoms of the disease. If the disease process is prolonged and the disease becomes chronic, the lesions may become malignant, which is why regular check-ups are so important.Important
More and more studies confirm the link between human papillomavirus infection and oral squamous cell carcinoma. HPV type 16 is assigned a special role in this process, but other subtypes of this virus cannot be excluded. In addition, bad habits such as smoking or frequent consumption of alcohol (especially high-percentage alcohol) increase the chancethe development of this tumor.
Papillomas of the oral mucosa: treatment
Treatment of papillomas consists in their surgical removal. The procedure is most often performed by a dental surgeon. In the first stage of the procedure, the doctor gives a local anesthetic. The lesion is then excised with a small margin of he althy tissue. The removed tissues are sent for histopathological examination to confirm the diagnosis. The wound can be sutured, the sutures are removed after about seven days.